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Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Official publication of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
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   2021| April-June  | Volume 39 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 30, 2021

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Effectiveness of the use of xylitol chewing gum in prevention of dental caries: A systematic review
Kelly Rodrigues Mota, João Vitor Farias da Silva, Cristine D’Almeida Borges, Priscylla Gonçalves Correia Leite de Marcelos, Pamella Recco Alvares, Valdeci Elias dos Santos Júnior
April-June 2021, 39(2):113-119
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_330_20  PMID:34341229
This systematic review of the literature assessed the effectiveness of using chewing gum containing only xylitol compared to prevention strategies or placebo in reducing the incidence of carious lesions in children using data obtained from randomized controlled trials. Electronic search was carried out in PubMed MEDLINE, Latin American and Caribbean Literature on the Health Science, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, and Scientific Electronic Library Online through the period between 2000 and 2020. Included clinical studies were done in children when the xylitol was dispensed in gum and the preventive effect of xylitol on tooth decay was compared to other preventive strategies or control groups. The studies were evaluated for their quality to obtain the level of evidence. The preventive fraction of each study was extracted. Two hundred studies were found. After analyzing the inclusion and removal of duplicates, only five studies were analyzed for the quality of evidence. With the analysis through the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system, it was possible to verify the very low level of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of gums containing only xylitol for the prevention of caries in children. The preventive fraction obtained varied between − 0.31 and 0.57 depending on the compared prevention strategy. The conflicting results, limitations, and inconsistencies of the studies allow us to establish that there is insufficient evidence to support the use of gums containing only xylitol for the prevention of caries in children. Other properly designed clinical trials need to be carried out.
  3,694 599 1
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 and Dentistry: A Summative Review of Guidelines issued by National Health Authorities
Gyanendra Kumar, Neeraj Gugnani, Dina Rabea, Ruba Odeh, Ferah Rehman, Rihab Mabrouk
April-June 2021, 39(2):120-131
DOI:10.4103/jisppd.jisppd_453_20  PMID:34341230
COVID-19 was first reported in China, in November 2019 and since then the spread of this disease was so rapid that on March 11, 2020, it was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Due to the high transmissibility of the COVID virus and the associated morbidity and mortality, various International and National health authorities released different guidelines for day-to-day living, laying down “new norms” which has impacted our lives enormously. Although these guidelines seem to be convoluted but owing to some differences in the guidelines, it raises an ambiguity in the minds of dentists. Hence, we felt the need of this review to summarize different guidelines issued by various National health authorities for catering emergency and routine dental care. We included guidelines from CDC, ADA, NHS, India, UAE, Egypt, and Tunisia and compared and consolidated to reach a consensus that teledentistry is a good alternative to face-to-face management for nonemergency patients. Triage should be done for all patients coming to the health-care facility. Temperature and other vital parameters should be recorded in our daily practice. Antibacterial mouth rinses before the dental procedure can reduce the microbial load and therefore can alleviate transmission. To reduce indirect transmission through fomites on inanimate objects various waiting area changes must be ensured. Air conditioners can be used in well-serviced conditions with due care given to ventilation of the operatory after each patient. Strict disinfection protocols and personal protective equipment for dentist safety are mandatory.
  2,491 454 -
CASE REPORTS
Chairside endodontic management of a child with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva
Rajesh Hemant Bariker, Shivayogi M Hugar
April-June 2021, 39(2):221-224
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_192_20  PMID:34341245
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an exceptionally atypical genetic disorder characterized by heterotopic bone formation within skeletal muscles, ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissues that affects one in 2 million people. A 4-year-old girl with FOP was referred to our practice with complaints of pain and discomfort in both sides of the lower jaw. Clinical examination revealed deep multiple caries and buccal gingival abscess in relation to multiple teeth. Endodontic care and conservative dental procedures were planned and performed chairside after a detailed discussion with FOP medical and dental experts. Very brief dental appointments were conducted with breaks to prevent muscle fatigue. No usage of regional anesthesia or dental dam clamps was done. The patient and her parents were counseled for oral hygiene maintenance, and periodic topical fluoride treatments were performed during successive follow-up appointments. The child is followed for 34 months post-treatment. The dental treatment modifications implemented for the present case were enough to institute good oral health and to prevent the creation of heterotopic ossifications in the maxillofacial region.
  2,247 271 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Pain perception of children after restorative treatments: Atraumatic restorative treatment versus chemomechanical removal – A noninferiority randomized clinical trial
Aline Maquiné Pascareli-Carlos, Laíza Fernandes Martins, Monicque da Silva Gonçalves, José Carlos Pettorossi Imparato, Tamara Kerber Tedesco
April-June 2021, 39(2):202-207
DOI:10.4103/jisppd.jisppd_426_20  PMID:34341242
Background: Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) and chemomechanical removal of dental caries have been shown to be safe and effective restorative procedures. However, current literature lacks well-design studies comparing the pain perceived by infants using ART and chemo-mechanical removal techniques. Aims: To compare pain perception of children of two techniques (ART vs. chemomechanical removal) of restorative treatments for dental caries removal. Settings and Design: A randomized clinical trial with two parallels arms (1:1) was conducted in the cities of Manaus (AM) and Uberlândia (MG), Brazil. Methods: Children between 4 and 9 years old were selected. In both groups - ART (n = 20) and chemomechanical caries removal (Papaya® gel) (n = 20) - oximeter measurements (heart rate and blood oxygenation) were performed before the intervention and until the complete removal of the infected caries dentin. At the end of the treatment, a Wong-Baker scale was used to assess pain perception during the procedure. An independent researcher measured, in minutes, the duration of each technique. Statistical Analysis: Poisson regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between the outcome and the explicative variables. Results: No statistical difference in pain perception between the two procedures of carious tissue removal was observed. By contrast, a lower heart rate was observed when chemomechanical removal was used (P = 0.013). Conclusion: Children that underwent chemomechanical caries removal presented lower heart rate compared to those who underwent ART. However, both techniques showed minimal or absent perceived pain.
  2,061 426 1
Applicability of Boston University approach for prediction of mesiodistal width of canines and premolars in the primary schoolchildren of rural Bengaluru: An in vivo study
Richardson V Thomas, Neeti Bajaj
April-June 2021, 39(2):208-213
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_70_19  PMID:34341243
Introduction: Boston University (BU) approach is a method for early prediction of unerupted permanent mandibular teeth widths based on the mesiodistal widths (MDWs) of primary mandibular canines and first molars. The present study was conducted to test the validity of BU approach by comparing it with Tanaka–Johnston (T/J) approach in the contemporary population. Aims and Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the applicability of BU approach for prediction of the MDWs of canines and premolars in the primary schoolchildren of rural Bengaluru. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 100 healthy schoolchildren of rural Bengaluru aged between 7 and 11 years. The MDWs of canines and premolars were predicted using both T/J and the considered BU approaches for all the children and were compared. Results: The correlation coefficient showed a statistically significant correlation between the predicted tooth size from the two predicted methods in the upper and lower arches (P < 0.001), with Pearson's correlation coefficient showing the very strong positive relationship (r = 0.7). Significant differences were seen between the mean predicted width of canines and premolars by both the approaches (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In spite of the limitations, we recommend the use of BU approach to predict arch length-tooth material discrepancy at an early age and to get at least an approximate estimation of the required space. We also advocate the necessity of further research on this approach prospectively.
  2,054 300 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - EPIDEMIOLOGY
Dental caries prevalence among elementary school students and its relationship with body mass index and oral hygiene in Ardabil in 2019
Soudabeh Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Behroz Dadkhah
April-June 2021, 39(2):147-153
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_293_20  PMID:34341233
Background and Aim: Tooth decay as a significant but preventable public health priority continues to be a common disease in developing countries, including Iran, which is particularly prevalent among children. The present study aims to determine dental caries prevalence among elementary school students and its relationship with body mass index and oral hygiene in Ardabil, Iran in 2019. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 581 elementary school students selected through cluster random sampling method in Ardabil city in 2019. Demographic data was collected using questionnaire and anthropometric indices (height, weight) were measured using the weighing scale and stadiometer, and dental caries was evaluated using the decayed, missing, or filled teeth index (dmft for primary teeth and DMFT for permanent). Results: The mean age of students was 9.61 ± 1.76 years, and 50.8% of them were female. 20.7% (n = 120) were obese, and 19.1% (n = 111) were overweight. The overall prevalence of caries was 74.9% (n = 435) in primary teeth, 72.8% (n = 423) in permanent teeth, and 96.6% (n = 561) in all teeth. The average dmft and DMFT scores were 4.16 ± 3.72 and 1.96 ± 1.76, respectively. There was a significant inverse relationship between body mass index and dmft (r = −0.146, P < 0.0001) and DMFT (r = −0.111, P = 0.004). Conclusion: The findings showed that prevalence of dental caries in elementary school children in Ardabil city is higher than global standards, obese and over-weight children experience fewer caries compared to normal-weight children, and there is a significant relation between not brushing the teeth and dental caries.
  1,922 305 -
Association of parental food choice motives, attitudes, and sugar exposure in the diet with early childhood caries: Case–control study
Anwesha Samaddar, Suprabha Baranya Shrikrishna, Aastha Moza, Ramya Shenoy
April-June 2021, 39(2):171-177
DOI:10.4103/jisppd.jisppd_104_21  PMID:34341237
Background: Parents can affect their children's diet by making some food components more accessible. Food choice motives and attitudes of the parents toward sugary food may influence children's diet. Aims: The aim of the study is to investigate the association of parental food choice motives, attitudes toward sugar consumption, and dietary sugar exposure with early childhood caries (ECC). Settings and Design: This case–control study involved 200 children, aged 3–5 years with an equal number of cases (with ECC) and controls (without ECC), based on the WHO-decay-missing-filled teeth index criteria for dental caries. Materials and Methods: The data for parental food choice motives and attitudes toward sugar consumption were obtained using questionnaire answered by their parents, and the dietary sugar exposure was calculated using a 24 h diet chart. Data were analyzed with multiple logistic regression. Results: Most parents (99.5%) considered “maintaining health and nutrition” as an important criterion, above 85% parents thought “mood of the child,” “child likes and dislikes,” “sensory appeal of the food item,” “natural foods,” “quality of the food,” and “weight control” criteria important while selecting food items, with no significant difference between cases and controls. About 61% of the cases considered buying food based on convenience is important, as compared to 47% controls, and the difference was significant. Cases and controls did not differ in attitudes toward sugar consumption. Sugar exposure was significantly higher among the cases. Conclusion: High dietary sugar exposure is associated with ECC. Parents of children with ECC are likely to buy foods for their children based on convenience and availability.
  1,850 336 1
CASE REPORTS
Cold abscess of dental origin in a 7-year-old child
Mayuri Ganesh, V Krishna Priya, M Divya Banu, G Shilpa, Santosh Kumar Challa, V V V R Krishna Murthy
April-June 2021, 39(2):225-228
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_359_20  PMID:34341246
Abscess related to an infected tooth is mostly associated with pyogenic infection, but sometimes, it can be asymptomatic and indicate a chronic condition. This case report shows cold abscess with a draining sinus due to dental origin. A 7-year-old female patient complained of pain with respect to grossly decayed tooth and recurrent swelling with no response to medications. After investigations and management of the lesion, it was concluded as abscess due to chronic granulomatous infection. Cold abscess is a classical manifestation of tuberculosis with no signs of inflammation. More than 60% of cases of this pathology occur in patients below 15 years old. It needs various clinical, histopathological, and laboratory investigations. Although rare, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis when no improvement occurs postroutine therapy to prevent serious complications. Furthermore, various precautions should be taken by the clinicians to prevent cross-infection.
  1,700 319 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Association of preterm low-birth-weight infants and maternal periodontitis during pregnancy: An interventional study
Bhavna Haresh Dave, Ekta B Shah, Rita V Gaikwad, Susmita S Shah
April-June 2021, 39(2):183-188
DOI:10.4103/jisppd.jisppd_270_20  PMID:34341239
Context: The impact of periodontal disease during pregnancy and its effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes is seen in the literature. When it comes to the link of disease related to periodontium to that of adverse pregnancy outcomes, a need can arise if a significant cause-effect relationship does exist or not between them. Aim: The study was aimed to determine the association of periodontal health status in pregnant women with the occurrence of preterm low birth weight (LBW) infants in Vadodara, Gujarat. Settings and Design: An interventional study with 100 patients was conducted, of which 67 participants were included in the control group and 33 participants were included in the intervention group. A total of 12 participants dropped out from the study and 88 were analyzed for the outcome. Subjects and Methods: The Community periodontal Index of Treatment needs index was taken for all enrolled participants and then were divided into interventional group and control group. Participants in the interventional group underwent scaling and root planning. Data related to the time of delivery and weight of the baby was taken from the hospital records. Statistical Analysis: A comparison of baseline characteristics was made using unpaired t-test. Chi-square test was used for the analysis of intergroup comparison. The odds ratio and the relative risk calculation were also done. P ≤ 0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Results: The odds ratio for both preterm and LBW were 3.86 times and 2.96, respectively. The Chi-square statistical test analysis was statistically significant for both preterm and LBW infants on the intergroup comparison. Conclusion: Periodontal disease can be considered as one of the risk factors for preterm LBW babies as not only the presence of disease condition causes an increase in inflammatory mediator but also the elimination of the disease condition reduces the adverse pregnancy outcomes.
  1,570 357 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - LABORATORY RESEARCH
Evaluation of stress in three different fiber posts with two-dimensional finite element analysis
Dharmaraj Basavaraj Patil, E Rajendra Reddy, S Thabitha Rani, Snehal Shivraj Kadge, Sheetal D Patil, Pooja Madki
April-June 2021, 39(2):178-182
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_240_20  PMID:34341238
Introduction: The primary function of corono-radicular post is to provide retention for the core and to reinforce and to replace the remaining coronal tooth structure. There is considerable controversy regarding optimal choice of the material. An ideal post system should exhibit fracture resistance higher than the average masticatory forces. Finite elemental analysis (FEA) method facilitates precise analysis of the distribution and magnitude of stresses at any point of complex and irregular structures. Thus, this FEA study has been undertaken to evaluate the fracture stress distribution patterns in three fiber posts, viz., carbon, glass fiber, and everStick with an FEA. Materials and Methods: The FE stress analysis was performed with the FE software program (CATIA). Three two-dimensional FEA models of central incisor were simulated, and elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio of all the materials were fed to the software. For all the models, a 200 N vertical force was applied on the lingual surface of the tooth at an angle of 45°. Stress concentration and distribution were evaluated and noted down for all the models. To evaluate the stresses within the restored tooth, the modified von Mises failure criterion was used. The equivalent stresses found in the tested models were compared with the tensile strength of the respective materials. Contact stresses in the luting cement–dentin interface were calculated. Results: Finite element method revealed that maximum stress concentration was at the point of stress application. The stress value was highest in carbon fiber post followed by glass fiber post and least stresses found in everStick post. Maximum stress was observed at the labial surfaces of crown. However, the stress values and distribution were more homogenous in everStick post. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that everStick post has uniform stress distribution within tooth structure.
  1,508 317 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
Association of salivary physicochemical characteristics and peptide levels with dental caries in children
Jamileh Ramezani, Mehrdad Rezaei Khaligh, Ghassem Ansari, Yaghoub Yazdani, Saeed Mohammadi
April-June 2021, 39(2):189-195
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_251_20  PMID:34341240
Aim: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the association of physicochemical properties and antimicrobial peptide levels of saliva with caries activity in children. Materials and Methods: The required volume of unstimulated saliva was collected from 41 children aged 3–12 years with no systemic diseases. Caries activity was calculated using DMFS and dmfs records for each participating child. Collected saliva samples were then examined for their flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. The concentration of three peptides was assessed including LL-37, human neutrophil peptide (HNP) 1–3, and human beta-defensin (HBD)-3 through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The correlation between caries activity score (CAS) and salivary variables was looked using the linear regression and Spearman's correlation method. The comparison of CAS means between high- and low-value groups of salivary items was performed using independent sample t-test while the association of CAS and salivary parameters in categorical scale was tested by Chi-square test. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between the CAS means at low and high categories of each salivary physicochemical parameter and those of antimicrobial peptides. There was a negative correlation between HNP1–3 and CAS and also between HBD-3 and CAS, but these results were not statistically meaningful. High HNP1–3 concentration was noted in 67% of the low caries rate group and 29% of the high caries rate group, with a statistically significant difference between the low and high caries rate groups (P = 0.019). Conclusion: Salivary inherent factors are not dominant determinants in caries activity. The current results may suggest that α-defensins (HNP1–3) have a protective role against dental caries.
  1,498 261 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - EPIDEMIOLOGY
Longitudinal evaluation of diastema closure in patients submitted to labial frenectomy in different phases of the mixed dentition: A historical cohort
MA Pereira Rafael, Marangonn Jr Helvécio, K Tedesco Tamara, JF Alencar Cassio, Moura-Netto Cacio, V Mello-Moura Anna Carolina
April-June 2021, 39(2):159-163
DOI:10.4103/jisppd.jisppd_397_20  PMID:34341235
Background: There is a controversy in the literature concerning the indications for frenectomy to treat interincisal diastema. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the spontaneous closure of the interincisal diastema in patients submitted to upper labial frenectomy (ULF) during the mixed dentition. Materials and Methods: Records from patients treated between 2009 and 2014 in the course of Pediatric Dentistry Surgery at Fundecto–USP were evaluated to select those that were submitted to ULF during the mixed dentition using the Chelotti technique. Initial clinic characteristics and radiographic data related to the abnormal upper labial frenum were collected. The patients were called for a return visit to evaluate the diastema closure. The prevalence of children with diastema reduction after the frenectomy was determined by descriptive analysis. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between exposure factors and diastema reduction. Results: From 449 eligible records, 53 were selected and 25 were in a return visit. It was not possible to find association between the exposure factors and diastema closure. Conclusion: There is no relation between the time of surgery intervention and diastema closure. However, the intervention during the mixed dentition led to a partial diastema reduction in 80% of the cases.
  1,490 249 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - CLINICAL RESEARCH
The association between the salivary cortisol level of mothers, children's temperament, and early childhood caries
Hossein Abedizadeh, Mahbobeh Faramarzi, Soraya Khafri, Qurdi Qujeq, Majid Ahangary, Maryam Ghasempour
April-June 2021, 39(2):196-201
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_247_20  PMID:34341241
Background: Multiple factors can affect early childhood caries (ECC). Maternal stress and child's temperament, as predictors of child behavior, are among factors that may be associated with ECC. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the salivary cortisol level of mothers as an indicator of maternal stress, child's temperament, and ECC. Methods: Ninety preschool children, who were divided into three groups of ECC, severe ECC (S-ECC), and caries-free (CF), were included in this study, as well as their mothers with no history of anxiety disorders. The salivary cortisol levels of mothers were analyzed using ELISA assay. Children were examined for the evidence of caries, using the decayed-missing-filled teeth index, based on the World Health Organization standard criteria. Child temperament was also assessed, using Cloninger's Preschool Temperament and Character Inventory, consisting of seven significant factors (cooperativeness, harm avoidance, novelty seeking, reward dependence, persistence, self-directing, and self-transcendence). Results: The association between the salivary cortisol level of mothers and temperament of children with S-ECC was positive although it was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Of seven temperament factors, only harm avoidance was significantly different between the CF and S-ECC groups (P = 0.016). Conclusion: Maternal stress and child's temperament were not associated with ECC. Based on the present findings, children with less harm avoidance may be more prone to S-ECC.
  1,468 261 -
Oral health status and microbial load of Streptococcus mutans in children with Cerebral palsy in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi
Drishti Kaushal, Namita Kalra, Amit Khatri, Rishi Tyagi, NP Singh, Anju Aggarwal, Rumpa Saha
April-June 2021, 39(2):214-220
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_194_20  PMID:34341244
Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a childhood debilitating condition which impairs the physical and mental ability of an individual to maintain oral health. Aim: The objective of the present study was assessment of dental neglect and burden of treatment needs of children affected with CP as compared to normal children in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Settings and Design: A sample size of 104 children of age group of 6–14 years was selected, in which 52 children of CP (case group) and 52 normal school children (control group) were recruited. Materials and Methods: Children from both groups were examined, and calculation of drug master files (DMFS), defs, oral hygiene index (OHI), and gingival index was done. The presence of trauma and malocclusion was assessed. Present caries activity was assessed by the level of Streptococcus mutans present in saliva in both groups. Treatment needs were then assessed based on intraoral findings. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 software. Student's t-test and nonparametric statistical tests such as Chi-square test and Mann–Whitney test were used as per the nature of variables studied for statistical analysis with the level of significance denoted at P < 0.05. Results: The mean DMFS, gingival index, OHI, and treatment needs were observed to be higher in the CP group. Increased S. mutans levels were observed in saliva of CP patients. Defs score, trauma, and malocclusion were not statistically significantly higher in CP group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Cerebral palsy group had a poor oral and gingival health, a higher DMFT and burden of treatment needs and an increased risk of further caries progression due to high caries activity indicated by increased level of salivary Streptococcus mutans than the control group.
  1,428 213 -
EDITORIAL
Mask up: Getting ready to prevent the third surge
Sudhindra Baliga
April-June 2021, 39(2):111-112
DOI:10.4103/jisppd.jisppd_221_21  PMID:34341228
  1,387 241 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - EPIDEMIOLOGY
Does maternal tooth brushing-related sef-efficacy predict child's brushing adherence?
Uma B Dixit, Priyanka R Sehgal, Lakshmi Moorthy, Harikesavan Iyer
April-June 2021, 39(2):164-170
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_370_20  PMID:34341236
Background: Dental plaque is a root cause of dental caries. Effective plaque control in young children can be achieved with twice-daily assisted tooth brushing. Self-efficacy relates to one's confidence in performing a task. Self-efficacy is shown to facilitate the behavior change in treatments for lifestyle diseases. The influence of maternal self-efficacy in children's oral health behaviors is less studied. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate an association between maternal tooth brushing-related self-efficacy (MTBSE) and child's brushing adherence. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted in schools and included 781 mother-child dyads with children between the age group of 2 and 6 years. Methods: Selected mothers were asked to complete the questionnaires on sociodemographic data, mother's oral health knowledge (MOHK), tooth-brushing practices, and MTBSE. Brushing adherence was evaluated as complete adherence if the child followed twice daily assisted brushing using the toothbrush and toothpaste. Statistical Analysis: Nonparametric tests were used to compare the variables. Binary logistic regression was used to evaluate the predictors of brushing adherence. Results: Complete brushing adherence (assisted brushing with toothbrush and toothpaste at least twice per day) was seen only in 26.9% children. More children with complete brushing adherence were single children (P < 0.001). Children with complete brushing adherence had mothers with significantly higher MTBSE (P < 0.001). The presence/absence of siblings, MOHK, and MTBSE were found to be strong and significant predictors of brushing adherence in children. Conclusions: MTBSE plays a significant role in complete adherence to toothbrushing in children aged 2–6 years.
  1,342 227 -
Educational approaches for assessing knowledge about and actions of educators in response to dental avulsion
Jacqueline Lima, Pablo Guilherme Caldarelli, Juliana Schaia Rocha, Flávia Sens Fagundes Tomazinho, Luiz Fernando Fariniuk, Flares Baratto-Filho, Marilisa Carneiro Leão Gabardo
April-June 2021, 39(2):138-146
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_186_20  PMID:34341232
Background: Dental trauma affects especially schoolchildren and adolescents. Educators, the responsible for the first appointment, have a fundamental role in the prognosis of dental avulsion that occurred in this environment. Aim: To evaluate the educational approaches for assessing knowledge and actions in response to dental avulsion among educators. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional and quanti–qualitative study included 197 teachers and 24 pedagogical coordinators (PCs), from the public schools of Pato Branco, Paraná, Brazil. Methods: A questionnaire was initially administered regarding the knowledge about avulsion to all participants. Teachers just read a manual and answered the questionnaire after 30 days. PCs were divided into (n = 12): G1 – manual + fictitious scenario of avulsion and G2 – active methodology + fictitious scenario. The questionnaire was re-administered to all. Statistical Analysis: Quantitative data were analyzed statistically. For the qualitative stage, two questions were proposed and the Bardin's analysis was performed. Results: For teachers, knowledge about avulsion increased after the intervention (P < 0.001), except as related to cleaning the tooth (P = 0.21). Activities involving G1 and G2 also led to an increase in knowledge, but no difference occurred in this increase between the approaches (P = 0.14). Qualitative analysis highlighted the need for calm and for performing actions that could favor a good prognosis in cases of avulsion. Conclusions: The level of knowledge increased after interventions, but no significant differences between the educational approaches were found.
  1,295 173 1
Basic behavior guidance techniques: A survey of members of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Dentistry
Cristina Segarra-Ortells, Ana María Leyda-Menéndez, Marta Ribelles-Llop, María José Gavara-Navarro, Laura Marqués-Martínez
April-June 2021, 39(2):132-137
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_355_20  PMID:34341231
Background: Over the last 20–30 years social trends, educational and parenting patterns, and the ethical and legal factors guiding them have led to the revaluation and even abandonment of some traditionally used behavior guidance techniques (BGTs). Aims: To profile the professionals providing specialized pediatric treatments in Spain and understand changes in their preferences and use of basic BGTs, and the evolution of these preferences. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational study was designed. Methods: One hundred and twenty-six dentists completed a previously validated survey. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were performed to analyze the questionnaire data. Results: The most common BGTs were “Tell/Show/Do” (98%) and positive reinforcement (92.1%), and the most abandoned BGT was: “hand-over-mouth” (15%), because it was rejected by parents and because of potential legal problems and psychological consequences for the patients. Of note, 37% of the professionals allowed the patient's parents to be present during the treatment. Conclusions: There has been a notable decrease in the use of certain BGTs in Spain, especially hand-over-mouth and voice control, because they are becoming less socially acceptable as the way society relates to and educates children changes.
  1,188 244 -
NOTICE OF RETRACTION
Retraction: Relationship between dental fluorosis and I.Q of school going children aged 10-12 years in and around Nalgonda district-A cross-sectional study

April-June 2021, 39(2):229-229
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.322493  PMID:34341247
  1,124 212 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES - EPIDEMIOLOGY
Oral healthcare-related perception, utilization, and barriers among schoolteachers: A qualitative study
Vikrant Mohanty, Swati Jain, Shekhar Grover
April-June 2021, 39(2):154-158
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_368_20  PMID:34341234
Background: Health perceptions play an important part influencing health care utilization. Oral health messages and practices advocated by teachers can ensure better compliance by the students. Aims and Objectives: The present study aimed to assess qualitative insight regarding the perception and outlook of the school teachers understanding probable barriers regarding oral health care seeking behavior. Materials and Methods: Phenomenology type of qualitative research design was used amongst 44 school teachers of a Senior Secondary Government School of Delhi selected through convenient sampling. One to one in-depth interview was taken in 03 sections: demographic details, knowledge of oral health and its significance in life along with commonly followed and recommended oral hygiene practices and their views regarding barriers to oral health. Summative content analysis was conducted. Frequency distribution of the observed keywords was analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: The mean age of teachers was 33.7 + 7.02 years (27-41 years). Every participant in the study felt that “oral health is integral part of overall health”. On inquiring the prime reason; it was quoted 'Awareness/affects general health' (15.2%) followed by 'Bad oral health affects academic performance' (9.6%). Regarding perceived barriers for dental service delivery l; the major roadblock perceived was “lack of awareness” (47.7%) followed by “financial barrier” (29.5%).Conclusion: The responses gave an insight regarding the basic need for further subject specific oral health education programs as a key for changing the current scenario. Future seminars and workshops remain the mainstream to appraise the knowledge for school staff.
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