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Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Official publication of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
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   2020| October-December  | Volume 38 | Issue 4  
    Online since January 5, 2021

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A comparative study of tell-show-do technique with and without the aid of a virtual tool in the behavior management of 6–9-year-old children: A nonrandomized, clinical trial
KT Raseena, PP Jeeva, Anupam Kumar, Digesh Balachandran, Aswani Anil, Resmi Ramesh
October-December 2020, 38(4):393-399
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_280_20  PMID:33402623
Context: Dental fear is a common and imperative emotion that develop as a response to the stressful situation, which raises children's anxiety level and resulting in avoidance behavior. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the tell-show-do technique with and without the aid of a virtual tool in the management of pediatric dental patients. Settings and Design: Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, nonrandomized clinical trial. Subjects and Methods: A total of 90 children of the age group of 6–9 years who were in the need of restorative treatment without using local anesthesia were assigned into two groups: Control group, where tell-show-do was applied as behavior management technique and intervention group in which tell-show-do with the aid of a virtual tool was applied. Child anxiety level was assessed using a combination of anxiety rating parameters before and after the procedure. Three physiological parameters (heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate) and two behavioral parameters (Wright's modification of Frankl' behavior Rating Scale and Facial Image Scale) were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Physiological parameters were analyzed using the independent sample t-test and behavioral parameters using the Mann–Whitney U-test (P < 0.05). Results: A significant difference in all five parameters was observed between the control group and intervention group. Conclusions: Virtual tool offers a new concept of virtual distraction aid in pediatric dentistry, and it was found to be very effective in managing anxious pediatric patients. This promising method diminishes the unpleasantness often associated with dental procedures and offers a relaxed state in children.
  5,344 395 -
Effectiveness of licorice in preventing dental caries in children: A systematic review
Ann Polachirakal Tharakan, Madhura Pawar, Sonal Kale
October-December 2020, 38(4):325-331
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_100_20  PMID:33402612
Background: Dental caries is one of the most prevailing oral health diseases in children. Recent times have focused on herbal products, because they have minimum or no side effects and are effective in prevention. Licorice is one such product belonging to Glycyrrhiza family used in the form of dentifrice, chewing gums, lollipop, gels, etc., Literature reports about the activity of licorice root extract on the biofilm thereby reducing Streptococcus mutans (SM) count and preventing dental caries in children. Objectives: The objective is to assess the effectiveness of licorice in reducing SM count and preventing dental caries in children. Methodology: PubMed and Google scholar were searched with search strategies for studies reporting licorice as intervention in children among 3–15 years for preventing dental caries. Only those studies with study design of randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and comparative studies published between January 1, 2000, and October 31, 2019 were included. Cross references and hand searching for the relevant articles were also conducted. Results: A preliminary search yielded a total of 31 studies through PubMed and Google scholar. From 31 studies, nine studies were excluded based on the screening through titles. From the remaining 22 articles, six duplicates, four without parameters, six as reviews and case reports and were excluded. Finally, six articles giving ten estimates were included for qualitative synthesis. Conclusion: Licorice extracts proves to be effective as an antimicrobial agent by reducing the count of SM in children. Its action on biofilm limits the fall of pH thereby preventing acidic environment that increases the risk of dental caries. Moreover, licorice in lollipop form is well accepted by children.
  4,551 444 -
Effectiveness of distraction techniques in the management of anxious children – A randomized controlled pilot trial
Sharath Asokan, PR Geetha Priya, S Nambi Natchiyar, M Elamathe
October-December 2020, 38(4):407-412
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_435_20  PMID:33402625
Aim: The aim was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two distraction techniques, magic trick and mobile dental game with tell-show-do (TSD) in the management of anxious children. Methodology: Two hundred and thirty children aged 4–5 years were screened for their baseline anxiety using the Chotta Bheem-Chutki scale. A double-blinded randomized control trial was conducted among 60 children with high anxiety scores. They were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 received a magic trick distraction technique. Group 2 received a mobile dental game distraction technique. Group 3, the control group received TSD. Readiness to accept the dental treatment and postoperative anxiety scores were recorded. Results: Statistically significant reduction in the anxiety level was seen in children who received magic (P = 0.001), mobile dental game (P < 0.001), and TSD technique (P < 0.001). Based on the readiness to accept dental treatment, there was a statistically significant difference between the three groups (P = 0.025). The children in the mobile group were found to accept the treatment faster compared to the magic and TSD groups. Conclusion: All three techniques were equally effective in reducing the anxiety of children. The mobile dental game was superior to magic trick and TSD in terms of children's readiness to accept dental treatment.
  3,719 328 -
Relationship between dental fluorosis and I.Q of school going children aged 10-12 years in and around Nalgonda district-A cross-sectional study
R Kranthi Kumar, Kola Srikanth Reddy, N Venugopal Reddy, Toviti Karthik, M Ajay Reddy, Nagakishore
October-December 2020, 38(4):332-337
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_160_20  PMID:33402613
  2,503 208 -
Comparative evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of conventional glass-ionomer cement and bulk-fill alkasite material when combined with doxycycline and double antibiotic paste containing ciprofloxacin and metronidazole against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp.: An in vitro study
Riddhi Shripad Joshi, Niraj S Gokhale, Shivayogi M Hugar, Sanjana P Soneta, Chandrashekhar M Badakar, Vidyavathi H Patil
October-December 2020, 38(4):361-366
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_143_20  PMID:33402618
Introduction: Glass-ionomer cement (GIC) have been indispensable to pediatric dentistry. Along with these, newer materials like bulk-fill alkasite cement (Cention N) are popularizing. In spite of this, the search is still on for the “ideal” bioactive material which could provide a therapeutic edge. In light of this, incorporation of antibiotics in GIC or newer materials like bulk-fill alkasite cement (Cention N) would provide a novel alternative material to the dentists. Aim: The study was aimed at comparing the antibacterial efficacy of conventional glass-ionomer cement (CGIC) and bulk-fill alkasite cement (Cention N) with doxycycline (DOX) and double antibiotic paste (DAP) containing metronidazole and ciprofloxacin (1.5% w/w) on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods: Agar well diffusion method was followed, in which material discs of 10 mm were made and inserted into the wells. Inhibition zones were calculated after incubation for 24 h at 37°C with zone interpretation scale. Results: A highly significant statistical correlation was found between antibacterial efficacy of the control groups (CGIC and bulk-fill alkasite cement [Cention N]) without antibiotics as compared to the experimental group (CGIC and bulk-fill alkasite cement [Cention N] with DOX and DAP), P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0006 for the CGIC group and P = 0.0147 and P = 0.0080 for the Cention N group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Incorporation of antibiotics significantly enhanced the antibacterial efficacy of CGIC and bulk-fill alkasite cement (Cention N).
  2,450 255 -
Multidisciplinary management of delayed eruption of permanent mandibular first molar associated with dentigerous cyst
Sharan S Sargod, Nandish Shetty, Afreen Shabbir, Dharnappa Poojary, HT Ajay Rao
October-December 2020, 38(4):425-429
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_391_20  PMID:33402628
The absence of a tooth in the oral cavity may be the result of some obstruction with the process of tooth eruption. Physical obstruction can result from many different causes, such as supernumerary teeth, mucosal barrier, scar tissue, and cysts or tumors. Their removal will usually permit the affected tooth to erupt. This case report describes the delayed eruption of the permanent mandibular first molar in a 9-year-old boy due to the dentigerous cyst associated with it. The management was done through a multidisciplinary approach. Surgical removal of cystic sac through marsupialization along with the removal of the barrier was done. As a consequence of delayed eruption of the permanent first molar, the opposing tooth had supraerupted, which was intruded using mini-implants. Following this, the tooth erupted satisfactorily into the oral cavity to establish class I molar relation.
  2,250 251 -
Comparison of cytotoxicity and smear layer removal efficacy of triphala (an Indian ayurvedic herbal formulation) and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants: An in vitro study
VP Reshma Raj, R Balagopal Varma, J Sureshkumar, Parvathy Kumaran, Arun Mamachan Xavier, Medhini Madhavan
October-December 2020, 38(4):343-349
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_297_20  PMID:33402615
Introductio: Healing potential of plants is an age-old idea that has recently attained renewed interest. Considering the ineffectiveness, potentially harmful effects, and safety concerns of commonly used synthetic irrigants, the herbal alternatives for endodontic usage might prove to be advantageous. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of smear layer removal and cytotoxicity potential of triphala in comparison to sodium hypochlorite. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts: the first part of the study was cytotoxicity assessment studied using Alamar blue assay. L929 mouse fibroblasts were seeded in 96-well plates at a density of 5000 cells/well and treated with different concentrations of triphala and NaOCl for a period of 24 and 48 h. The percentage of cell viability was then quantified using an Alamar blue assay. The optical density was measured at 570 nm and compared with 620 nm, which was considered as a reference wavelength. The second part of the study was smear layer assessment at the coronal, middle, and apical third of twenty human premolar teeth using scanning electron microscope. Results: The Alamar blue reagent cytotoxicity study suggested that triphala showed no cytotoxic properties against the normal mouse fibroblast cells whereas sodium hypochlorite showed a significant cytotoxic effect against the L929 cell lines with the IC50 concentration at 1.8%, respectively, after the treatment of 24 h of incubation at 37°C temperature. Triphala was as effective as sodium hypochlorite in smear layer removal in the coronal and middle third of the root, but sodium hypochlorite showed better smear layer removal in the apical third. Conclusion: Triphala can be considered as a superior irrigant with good antibacterial efficacy and least cytotoxicity potential compared to conventional hypochlorite irrigating agent and provide adequate clearing of smear layer in the coronal and middle third, and further studies are warranted to alter the properties of liquid to make it more cleansable in the apical third of the root.
  2,217 259 -
Influence of parent-provided distraction and interactive distraction with a handheld video game on the child's responses during local anesthesia administration
Sravani Ega, Sivakumar Nuvvula, Sreekanth Kumar Mallineni
October-December 2020, 38(4):413-418
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_486_20  PMID:33402626
Background: To evaluate the influence of parent-provided distraction (PPD) and interactive distraction (ID) with a handheld video game (HVG) on the child's responses to local anesthesia (LA) administration during dental treatment. Methods: Children attending the department of pediatric dentistry were randomly selected and distributed to the two groups (PPD and an ID with HVG). Parents in the operatory and the principles of tell-show-do remained common in both the groups. Behavioral, physiological, and self-report measures of pain were estimated using the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (FLACC) scale, pulse rate, as well as Iowa pain thermometer-revised (IPT-R) scale and compared for both groups correspondingly. The SPSS (standard statistical package) version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA) was used for statistical analysis at the significance of P < 0.05. Results: A total of 30 children (15 in each group) aged 7–11 years participated in the study. There were no significant differences observed among boys and girls (P > 0.05). The independent t-test for the pulse rate showed no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). Paired t-test for pulse rate in the PPD group showed a significant difference compared to ID with the HVG group (P < 0.05). The scores for FLACC and ID with HVG, showed a statistically significant decrease in scores recorded for ID with HVG, whereas the scores recorded for FLACC did not show any statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Based on the study results, PPD would be the least distressful option, compared to the ID with HVG in children while administering LA.
  2,234 176 -
Clinical, microbiological, and radiographic evaluation of sealed carious dentin after minimal intervention in primary molars
Meenu Mittal, Nupur Gupta, Ashok Kumar, Radhika Chopra, Madhumita Barua
October-December 2020, 38(4):400-406
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_325_20  PMID:33402624
Background: In continuation with the ultraconservative minimal intervention approach for carious lesions treatment, lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR) is a novel concept of using antibacterial drugs to disinfect dentinal, pulpal, and periapical lesions. Aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical, radiographic, and microbiologic success rate of indirect pulp treatment (IPT) using a new technique minimal excavation and LSTR with triple antibiotic paste (TAP), for primary molars. Settings and Design: This was randomized controlled trial design. Materials and Methods: Forty-two healthy cooperative children aged 5–10 years having deep carious lesion in primary molars were randomly assigned to receive either traditional IPT with calcium hydroxide or minimal excavation and LSTR with TAP. Follow-up was done at 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 15–18 months intervals, and treatment success or failure was determined by a combination of clinical, microbiological, and radiographic findings. Statistical Analysis Used: Qualitative data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square test. Mann–Whitney U nonparametric test was used for statistically significant differences between the bacterial counts (median values and percent reduction) between the two groups and the Wilcoxon sign rank test for the intragroup evaluation of bacterial counts. Results: LSTR with TAP was found to be as effective as traditional indirect pulp treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Minimal excavation and LSTR with TAP can be an effective treatment methodology for the management of deep carious lesions in primary molars.
  2,087 276 -
Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of different herbal irrigants on the removal of smear layer of primary teeth: A scanning electron microscopy study
Shikha Mali, Shilpy Singla, Parimala Tyagi, Arun Sharma, Nidhi Talreja, Ankit Gautam
October-December 2020, 38(4):374-380
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_315_20  PMID:33402620
Aim and Objectives: The aim and objectives of this study are to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of Myristica fragrans – Nutmeg, Terminalia chebula – Myrobolan, Ocimum sanctum-tulsi, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the removal of the smear layer by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Settings and Design: Endodontic treatment aims at disinfection and then obturation of root canal system in to prevent re-infection. Root canal irrigants play a pivotal role in the disinfection process. One of the important properties of an irrigant is the removal of complete smear layer and debris. Smear layer has the potential to protect bacteria within the dentinal tubules; therefore removal may be prudent. Smear layer removal increases the bond strength of resin sealers which results in better apical seal. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted single-rooted, primary teeth were allocated randomly into four groups of ten each: Group 1 – NaOCl, Group 2 – Nutmeg, Group 3 – Myrobolan, and Group 4 – Tulsi. Samples were stored in sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) and then decoronated at the level of the cementoenamel junction. Working length was determined followed by appropriate irrigation. The roots were split into two halves with a chisel and were stored in 2.5% glutaraldehyde solution for 24 h. After fixation, the samples were dehydrated in ethanol series (70, 90, and 95 and twice at 100%). Each specimen was mounted on Al stub and sputter coated with a 20 nm layer of gold. Samples were then examined using a SEM quantum 60 at magnification of ×2000. Results: Tulsi demonstrated the most statistically significant results followed by myrobolan and nutmeg extract. All herbal extracts were found to be significantly effective than 2.5% NaOCl. Conclusion: Tulsi, nutmeg and myrobolan can be effectively used as an irrigant in primary teeth.
  2,134 220 -
Effectiveness of magnetized water and 0.2% chlorhexidine as a mouth rinse in children aged 12–15 years for plaque and gingivitis inhibition during 3 weeks of supervised use: A randomized control study
Devendra Ishwarlal Nagpal, Shrawani Suryakant Mankar, Gagandeep Lamba, Purva Chaudhary, Kavita Hotwani, Sargam D Sortey
October-December 2020, 38(4):419-424
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_439_20  PMID:33402627
Background: Chlorhexidine mouth rinse, a 'Gold Standard'effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis, has some drawbacks like bitter taste, light brown staining of teeth etc. limiting its long-term use. Magnetized water is alkaline and inhibits the bonding process between plaque and teeth by “magnetohydrodynamic”. Aim: To compare and evaluate effectiveness of magnetized water and 0.2% chlorhexidine as a mouth rinse in children aged 12-15 years for plaque and gingivitis inhibition during 3 weeks of supervised use. Settings and Design: This was a double blinded randomized control clinical study, carried out at a non-government high school. Methods:A total of 20 children aged 12-15 years were randomized into two groups, magnetized water and 0.2% chlorhexidine, each comprising of 10 children who were asked to rinse with the respective mouthwash. Plaque index (PI) scoresand gingival (GI) scoreswere evaluated at baseline, 2 weeks and at 3 weeksfor each child. Statistical analysis: Independent sample t test and paired sample t test were used to check the mean differences. Result: A statistically significant difference was found in reduction of mean PI and GI scores of magnetized water (p=0.0001) and Chlorhexidine groups(p=0.0001) both at 14 days (2 weeks) and at 21 days (3 weeks) with no adverse effects. Conclusion: Daily use of magnetized water as a mouth rinse was safe andeffective alternative to chlorhexidinein plaque and gingivitis reduction, which supplemented the benefits of daily toothbrushing in children.
  1,854 218 -
Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of glass ionomer cement added with propolis, chitosan, and chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus: An in vitro study
B Neelima, J Sharada Reddy, P Tara Singh, K Suhasini, I Hemachandrika, Shaik Hasanuddin
October-December 2020, 38(4):367-373
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_322_20  PMID:33402619
Context: Glass ionomer cement (GIC) is known for its antimicrobial activity due to its low pH and fluoride release. The fluoride released has an inhibitory effect on a finite number of bacteria which leads to the risk of recurrent caries. Additives such as chlorhexidine (CHX) and triclosan have been tried to maximize the antibacterial activity of GIC. Although CHX is known for its impressive antimicrobial action, it has adverse after effects which include alteration of commensal oral flora, staining of teeth, etc., Hence, there is a need for a material with improved antimicrobial efficacy with nominal side effects. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of conventional GIC added with Propolis, Chitosan (CH), and CHX against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: Eighty discs of size 10 × 2 mm are prepared with Conventional GIC and GIC added with Propolis, CH and CHX (n = 10) and tested against S. mutans and L. acidophilus using the agar diffusion assay. Zones of inhibition are measured for day 1, 7, and 14, and the data were tabulated and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: One-way ANOVA test for intragroup and Tukey's post hoc test for intergroup comparison. Results: The mean value of zone of inhibition (in mm) against S. mutans on day 14 for Group I, II, III, and IV are 11.70 ± 1.49, 16.50 ± 2.23, 19.30 ± 2.87, and 15.60 ± 2.76, respectively. For L. acidophilus, the mean value of the zone of inhibition (in mm) on day 14 are 8.40 ± 0.97, 9.70 ± 0.68, 16.20 ± 2.04, and 12.50 ± 0.97 for Group I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Conclusion: Higher antimicrobial activity was shown by GIC with CHX against both strains. GIC with Propolis and GIC with CH were effective in inhibiting S. mutans and L. acidophilus, respectively.
  1,872 190 -
Relationship between chronological age, dental age, and body height using Demirjian method among children aged 4–14 years in Pune – A radiographic study
Rahul J Hegde, Anand Shigli, Pritesh Gawali, Geetanjali Jadhav, Priyanka Garje, Tejas Kulkarni
October-December 2020, 38(4):338-342
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_410_20  PMID:33402614
Context: The assessment of dental age is useful in the planning of orthodontic treatment, in pediatric dentistry, pediatric endocrinology, and forensic medicine. It is essential for a pediatric dentist to formulate treatment plan and it is a source of complementary information for pediatrician. Changes in the body proportion and composition are the essential elements of growth, especially maturation. Aims: The present study was aimed to correlate the chronological age, dental age, and body height in children from Pune region of Maharashtra, India. Subjects and Methods: Four hundred and thirty-one panoramic radiographs of 177 boys and 254 girls in the age group of 4-14 years were obtained. Chronological age was assessed by recording date of birth. Dental age assessment was done using orthopantamogram following the method described by Demirjian. Body height was recorded using a measuring tape. Results: Chronological age and dental age showed significant positive correlation between male and female sample, i.e., r = 0.905 for males and r = 0.901 for females. Statistically significant correlation was observed between calculated dental age and body height. Conclusions: In the present study, it can be concluded that the Demirjian method of dental age assessment showed high accuracy when applied to pediatric population in Pune.
  1,785 222 -
In vitro evaluation of milk-based, soy-based, and amino acid-based infant formulas on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation
Hira Sadan, BM Shanthala, MA Zareena, George Babu, Vidhya Vijayan
October-December 2020, 38(4):350-354
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_241_20  PMID:33402616
Background and Objective: Infant formulas are based on milk, and the addition of simple carbohydrates as a caloric source, for infants. The carbohydrates added in infant formulas can cause a significant increase of Streptococcus mutans in the oral cavity of infants adding to their cariogenicity. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess and compare the biofilm formation in three commercially available infant formulas;which are based on milk, soy and amino acid. Settings and Design: In vitro microbiological assay of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation in milk based, soy based and amino acid based infant formulas. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four hour-cultured S. mutans and microtiter plates were used for analysis. At microtiter plate, 190 μL of modified TSB broth containing SBF, MBF, amino acid-based infant formulas, and dairy whitener as a positive control in five dilutions (1:05, 1:10, 1:20, 1:40, and 1:80) was added into respective wells. 10 μL of cultured S. mutans was inoculated into the wells and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Biofilm was washed, fixed, and stained with crystal violet. The absorbance was measured to evaluate biofilm growth, which was read as optical densities in a spectrophotometer at 490 nm and was tabulated. Results: Three infant formulas tested showed S. mutans biofilm growth. Minimal biofilm growth was observed in amino acid-based formula at 1:80 dilution, followed by MBF at 1:10 dilution and SBF at 1:80 dilution. Conclusion: Commercially available infant formulas favor S. mutans biofilm growth and can be cariogenic. Amino acid-based infant formula was found to have less S. mutans biofilm growth than MBF and SBF.
  1,790 180 -
Apert's syndrome: A rare craniofacial disorder
Prajakta C Khelkar, Aaditi N Kadam, Freny R Karjodkar, Kaustubh P Sansare
October-December 2020, 38(4):430-433
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_434_20  PMID:33402629
Apert's syndrome (AS) which is a rare congenital disorder is a form of acrocephalosyndactyly. This syndrome is characterized by craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, and syndactyly of hands and feet. We report a case of 13-year-old boy in India presenting features of AS such as exophthalmos, hypertelorism, strabismus, steep forehead, parrot beak nose, depressed nasal bridge, and retruded middle third of the face. The purpose of this report is to present a case of AS by highlighting the craniofacial characteristics.
  1,762 166 -
Antibacterial activity of new hydrophilic sealants: In vitro study
Federica Veneri, Elena Bardellini, Francesca Amadori, Emanuela Gobbi, Raffaella Belotti, Alessandra Majorana
October-December 2020, 38(4):387-392
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_442_20  PMID:33402622
Background: Pits and fissures sealing and modulation of oral microbiota through probiotics are important preventive measures against dental decays. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of the Embrace™ WetBond™ Pit and Fissure Sealant (Pulpdent, USA) and UltraSeal XT® Hydro™ (Ultradent, USA) against selected oral bacteria and probiotics. Methods: The antibacterial effect of both sealants was tested both through planktonic growth inhibition test – 96-well microtiter plates and agar disk diffusion assay containing light-cured Embrace™ and UltraSeal XT® against Streptococcus mutans and two oral probiotics (Streptococcus salivarius and Lactobacillus reuteri). Results: Embrace™ showed a stronger and broad activity against all the bacterial strains tested (P < 0.05) in planktonic growth inhibition test even at its lowest dose (10 μl), with inhibition rates higher than 90% in all cases. UltraSeal XT® Hydro™ showed a mild antibacterial activity against L. reuteri, with growth inhibition rates being 19% and 23% for 20 μl and 50 μl, respectively. Regarding agar disk diffusion test, both sealants showed exclusively an antibacterial activity by contact. Conclusions: According to these findings, it is recommended to carefully plan the timing for the administration of different preventive interventions, such as oral probiotics assumption and sealant application, to maximize their specific effectiveness. We suggest prescribing oral probiotics first and putting off the Embrace™ sealant application to the end of probiotic treatment. On the contrary, it is possible to administer L. reuteri simultaneously with the application of UltraSeal XT® since it elicits a minimal antibacterial action against this oral probiotic.
  1,656 167 -
Evaluation of mineral loss in primary and permanent human enamel samples subjected to chemical demineralization by international caries detection and assessment system II and quantitative light-induced fluorescence™: An in vitro study
Ragavee Veeramani, Raghavendra Shanbhog, Nandlal Bhojraj, Shefali Kaul, NK Anoop
October-December 2020, 38(4):355-360
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_181_20  PMID:33402617
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to understand the mineral loss in primary and permanent enamel samples and an attempt is made to standardize the process of chemical demineralization to generate more meaningful results in research studies involving the remineralization of demineralized samples. Materials and Methods: Due to variability among enamel samples theoretically, it is impossible to standardize demineralization by running time-based chemical demineralization cycle without frequent monitoring. Instead of carrying out demineralization cycles for a fixed duration of time, we quantified the mineral loss 24 hourly using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence System (QLF™). Twenty primary and permanent enamel samples were subjected to demineralization, and ICDAS and QLF™ evaluation were done at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h of demineralization. Results: The first visual change in permanent enamel is appreciated at 24 h (ICDAS II code1, QLF™ code1 −16.353 – ΔF) of demineralization, at 48 h (ICDAS II code2, QLF™ code2, −24.515 – ΔF), there was localized white spot lesion in permanent enamel and remained until 96 h (ICDAS II code 2, QLF™ code 2, −25.739 – ΔF) of demineralization. In primary samples, distinct visual change was seen at 24 h (ICDAS II code2, QLF™ code2, −19.431 – ΔF), and at 48 h clinically, there was a distinct visual change, but optically mild enamel breakdown was appreciated (ICADSII code 2 QLF™ code3, −27.201 – ΔF), which remained constant till 120 h of demineralization (ICDAS II code2 QLF™ code3 −37.645 – ΔF). Conclusion: Different samples demineralize at different rates. The demineralization in primary samples was 1.25 times higher than permanent samples. Recommendation: due to inherent variability in the samples continuous monitoring of the demineralization process on a 24 hourly basis is required to standardize the process.
  1,506 174 -
Scientific article publishing: Dealing with rejection blues
Sudhindra Baliga
October-December 2020, 38(4):323-324
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_530_20  PMID:33402611
  1,386 209 -
Evaluation of the association between tuftelin gene polymorphism, Streptococcus mutans, and dental caries susceptibility
Priti Sushil Jain, Satyawan G Damle, Shely P Dedhia, Abdulkadeer M Jetpurwala, Tejashri S Gupte
October-December 2020, 38(4):381-386
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_98_20  PMID:33402621
Context: Dental caries can be conceptualized as an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Aims: The purpose of this study was to identify any polymorphism in tuftelin gene and its association with dental caries susceptibility, either singly or in combination with the microbial causing agent: Streptococcus mutans. Settings and Design: The presented study included a total of 30 children of age group 12–16 years categorized into two groups: 15 children with no detectable caries in Group I and 15 children with high caries (DMFS ≥10) in group II. Materials and Methods: The stimulated salivary samples were inoculated in mitis salivarius bacitracin agar plates and growth of S. mutans was estimated. DNA extraction was done from whole blood and amplification was done with the help of real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. Oligonucleotide primers were designed to flank single nucleotide polymorphism in the gene. Statistical Analysis Used: The collected data was statistically analyzed by unpaired t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square test, Pearson correlation, and regression analysis. Results: The difference in mean salivary S. mutans counts between the two groups was highly significant. Correlation between tuftelin gene polymorphism and dental caries susceptibility was not significant in both Group I and Group II. Only 4.1% of the variability in dental caries risk can be explained by interaction between tuftelin gene and S. mutans. Conclusions: Future research studies including parents and siblings should be carried out to focus on further investigation into the mechanism of this gene-environment interaction.
  1,291 115 -
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  2005 - Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 
Online since 1st May '05