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Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Official publication of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
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   2020| July-September  | Volume 38 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 29, 2020

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Vitamin D deficiency as an etiological factor in delayed eruption of primary teeth: A cross-sectional study
Lalitha S Jairam, Sapna Konde, N Sunil Raj, NC Kumar
July-September 2020, 38(3):211-215
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_184_18  PMID:33004717
Context: Delayed tooth eruption might be the primary or sole manifestation of local or systemic pathology. Aims: The aim of the study was to correlate Vitamin D level and eruption status of primary teeth. The objectives also included the assessment of the association between Vitamin D levels and socioeconomic status, infant's sun exposure, maternal sun exposure during pregnancy and religion. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional, observational study conducted on 96 infants aged 12–15 months. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six infants, aged 12–15 months were selected after obtaining parental consent. Blood samples were assessed for Vitamin D3 levels using the Vitamin D ELISA Kit. The eruption status of the teeth was recorded in all the 96 infants. The obtained data were subjected to the statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: The obtained data were subjected to relevant statistical analysis such as Analysis of Variance, unpaired t-test, Kruskal–Wallis test, and Mann–Whitney U test, Chi-square Test, Tukey HSD, and Fisher's exact Test. Results: A significant correlation was found in the Vitamin D levels and the eruption timing (P < 0.001). The difference in mean Vitamin D levels among the three socio economic groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.088). A significant association was found between the infant's sun exposure and mother's sun exposure during pregnancy and religion on the Vitamin D levels (P = 0.002, P = 0.042, P = 0.002). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency can be considered as an etiological factor for delayed eruption. A strong association exists between the socioeconomic status, infant's sun exposure, maternal sun exposure during pregnancy, and religion with Vitamin D levels.
  6,127 534 -
Effectiveness of different behavior guidance techniques in managing children with negative behavior in a dental setting: A randomized control study
Pratik Pande, Vivek Rana, Nikhil Srivastava, Noopur Kaushik
July-September 2020, 38(3):259-265
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_342_20  PMID:33004724
Background: Dental fear is a common cause of uncooperative behavior among young children, which poses a challenge in providing effective dental treatment. With the advancements in technology, several behavior guidance techniques in the form of distraction have emerged over time for managing uncooperative pediatric dental patients. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate the effectiveness of four different behavior guidance techniques in managing uncooperative pediatric patients by measuring pre- and post-operative dental fear/anxiety levels using physiological and nonphysiological parameters. Methodology: Sixty systemically healthy children aged 5–8 years with negative behavior as per Frankl's Rating Scale, requiring restoration were included in the study and randomly divided into four equal groups (n = 15), based on the guidance techniques used: Tell-Show-Do (TSD) as a control group and audio distraction, audiovisual distraction (AVD) (virtual reality [VR]) and Mobile Phone Game Distraction as test groups. Pre- and post-intervention levels of the child's fear/anxiety were assessed using both physiological (blood pressure and pulse rate) and nonphysiological (facial image scale) parameters. The data were evaluated using t-test and one-way ANOVA test. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed in both physiological and non-physiological parameters post-intervention in the groups with a maximum decrease in the AVD (VR) group. Conclusions: AVD (VR) was found to be the most effective while TSD alone as the least effective behavior guidance technique in reducing dental fear/anxiety in uncooperative pediatric dental patients.
  4,795 365 -
Primary school teachers' knowledge and attitude regarding traumatic dental injuries
Simona Daupare, Julija Narbutaite
July-September 2020, 38(3):216-221
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_170_18  PMID:33004718
Aim: According to the WHO, 16%–40% of children aged 6–12 years experience dental traumas. Long-term treatment success depends on immediate emergency care and early professional management after the injury occurred. The primary school teachers can play a crucial role in managing traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) because they are often in proximity to children and often need to assist when dental trauma occurs. The aim of the present study was to assess primary school teachers' knowledge and attitude regarding TDI and describe their behavior in emergency situations. Materials and Methods: A four-part anonymous questionnaire comprised questions on demographic data, attitude, knowledge toward TDI, and behavior in case of accident and self-assessment questions were distributed among 147 teachers from 16 schools. The data were obtained from 106 participants (72.1%). The Kruskal–Wallis and independent t-tests served for statistical analysis. Results: More than half of teachers (56.6%) have witnessed TDI. Almost all respondents (94.3%) indicated that in case of dental trauma is important to take emergency management as soon as possible. However, two-thirds of them (75.5%) thought that teachers cannot provide appropriate emergency management in case of TDI. In addition, teachers had little knowledge regarding TDI and the proper emergency management: 91.3% of participants do not know the right storage media for the avulsed tooth, 40.6% have thought that tooth replantation is impossible, and 17.1% would throw an avulsed tooth away, when it fells on the ground. Conclusion: The study revealed inappropriate knowledge and attitude regarding TDI among primary school teachers and their behavior in first-aid management.
  3,044 261 -
Comparative evaluation of the compressive strength of two different post systems in primary anterior teeth restored with pediatric zirconia crowns
Gulerana Gab, B Dinesh Rao, Sunil Panwar, Harleen Narula
July-September 2020, 38(3):253-258
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_138_20  PMID:33004723
Background: In cases where there is an extensive loss of crown structure, these treatments require intracanal posts placement for retention as occlusal forces make the tooth structure weak and prone to fracture. Thus, restoration of primary anterior teeth, followed by post placement and cementation with pediatric zirconia crowns helps withstand masticatory forces to a greater extent. Aim: This in vitro study evaluates the compressive strength of two different post systems in the primary anterior teeth, restored with pediatric zirconia crowns. Materials and Methods: The present study was an in vitro, experimental, comparative study, with a study sample selected using a convenience sampling method. Forty-five primary anterior teeth were obturated and restored with enhanced omega-shaped loop and reinforced glass-fiber posts were cemented with pediatric zirconia crowns. The compressive strength and the type of fracture were evaluated for each group. Results: This study demonstrated that the glass-fiber posts had a higher compressive strength, although omega-shaped posts showed a higher presence of favorable fracture. Conclusion: Retentive omega-shaped loops and reinforced glass-fiber posts were both capable of withstanding high fracture loads. The addition of cemented pediatric zirconia crown on decayed primary anterior teeth restored with post systems helped withstand the load to a greater extent.
  2,609 364 -
Fluoride release and fluoride-recharging ability of three different sealants
Sneha S Patil, Ujwal R Kontham, Rakesh K Kontham, Smita S Patil, Sanjay P Kamble
July-September 2020, 38(3):247-252
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_345_19  PMID:33004722
Background: We aimed to determine the fluoride release and fluoride-recharging ability of a sealant containing surface pre-reacted glass (S-PRG) ionomer filler particles (BeautiSealant) with a fluoride-releasing resin sealant (Helioseal F), and a glass-ionomer sealant (Fuji VII). Materials and Methodology: Forty-eight disc-shaped specimens of each material were immersed in deionized water to determine the fluoride release utilizing a fluoride ion-selective electrode. After 21 days, 8 specimens were soaked in 0.22% Sodium Fluoride solution for 2 min; 8 specimens were coated with 1.23% Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride (APF) gel for 4 min, and the fluoride-recharging ability was evaluated for 40 days. Data were analyzed using one way-ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests. Results: Total fluoride release over the 21-day period was: Fuji VII > BeautiSealant > Helioseal F, (P = 0.000). After refluoridation of the specimens with 0.22% Sodium Fluoride solution, the cumulative fluoride release during the 40-day period for each material was: BeautiSealant > Fuji VII > Helioseal (P = 0.000). After exposure to 1.23% APF gel, the cumulative fluoride release during the 40-day period for each material was: BeautiSealant > Fuji VII > Helioseal F (P = 0.000). Conclusion: Glass ionomer-based sealants (Fuji VII) exhibited higher initial fluoride release whilst the surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer filler containing sealant (BeautiSealant) demonstrated superior fluoride recharging properties.
  2,358 306 -
Parental acceptance of behavior management techniques for preschool children in dental practice: Revisited
Kanchaporn Seangpadsa, Apiwan Smutkeeree, Pattarawadee Leelataweewud
July-September 2020, 38(3):274-279
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_349_20  PMID:33004726
Background: Parental acceptance of behavior management techniques (BMTs) in dental practice is important and subjected to change with the dynamics of the society. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the parental acceptance of eight selected BMTs: tell–show–do (TSD), voice control (VC), passive restraint (PR), active restraint (AR), parental presence/absence (PP/PA), oral sedation (OS), inhalation sedation nitrous oxide/oxygen (N2O/O2), and general anesthesia (GA) and its associated factors in a group of Thai parents. Design: The cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 parents of preschool children in Bangkok metropolitan. Materials and Methods: Parents were asked to rate the BMTs demonstrated in video with a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Possible relevant factors were collected via questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the samples. BMTs were ranked by mean VAS using the general linear model repeated measure. The association between the mean VASs and parental and child's factors was analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and independent t-test. Significant factors were further analyzed by multiple linear regression. The level of confidence was set at 95%. Results: All BMTs were acceptable. TSD was rated the highest, followed by PR, VC, AR, N2O/O2, OS, GA, and PP/PA, respectively. Parental dental anxiety was associated with less acceptance of PP/PA. Child's experience of VC, AR, OS, and PP/PA was related to better acceptance of the techniques. Conclusions: The BMTs were better accepted with similar pattern compared to past studies. PP/PA was the least accepted related to high parental anxiety. Child's experience with BMTs increased the acceptance.
  2,147 197 -
Inter-comparison of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, LASER, and an antifungal agent as adjunct intracanal irrigation techniques to standard disinfection protocols in reducing Candida albicans counts in the root canals of primary teeth: A pilot study
Pallavi Anand, Shivani Mathur, Vinod Sachdev, Anshi Jain
July-September 2020, 38(3):304-310
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_286_20  PMID:33004730
Background: Despite endodontic infections being a common problem in the primary dentition, some of the infected primary teeth can remain functional until the exfoliation through endodontic treatment. The primary endodontic treatment goal must be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the antifungal efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, LASER, and 1% clotrimazole as irrigants by reducing the colony-forming units (CFU) of Candida albicans in the infected root canals of primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Pulp therapy was performed on deciduous mandibular second molars of 20 healthy children aged 5–8 years, which were divided into four groups of intracanal disinfection protocols: Group 1 (n = 5) – Sodium Hypochlorite, Group 2 (n = 5) – Photodynamic, Group 3 (n = 5) – Normal saline with LASER, and Group 4 – (n = 5) Antifungal. Disinfection potential was compared by collecting samples one just after access opening and the other after the experimental groups using paper points. The samples were cultured and incubated for 48 h to check change in CFU of the fungi. Results: Data were analyzed statistically using the Shapiro–Wilk's test, Mann–Whitney U-test; Kruskal–Wallis test, and Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was found between the different groups. However, complete inhibition of C. albicans CFU was seen with Group 4. Conclusion: One percent Clotrimazole (antifungal) can be utilized as an adjunct in the endodontic irrigation protocol for better success of pulpectomy in children.
  1,986 199 -
Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy Type VIII: A rare clinical presentation, genomics, diagnosis, and management in an infant
Shaik Hasanuddin, Gayatri Moghe, J Sharada Reddy
July-September 2020, 38(3):315-318
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_310_19  PMID:33004732
A 7-month-old female child born to nonconsanguineous parents with a history of global developmental delay, since early infancy had reported to the department with facial features of mild dysmorphism. History of finger sucking and finger biting was evident, as there was a massive scab tissue over the dorsal aspect of the index finger, above the finger nail bed. A huge ulcer was evident on the right side of the dorsal aspect of anterior two-thirds of the tongue. Genetic evaluation through targeted gene sequencing confirmed the diagnosis as hereditary sensory, autonomic neuropathy Type VIII (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man – 616488). A homozygous missense variation in exon 3 of PRDM12 was detected. A multidisciplinary approach was planned for the management of the child. A soft splint on the maxilla was fabricated and stabilized with an adhesive. However, the final diagnosis was confirmed by a DNA genomic sequencing test, namely a multigene panel testing or comprehensive genomic sequencing.
  1,812 118 -
Citations – A tool for research performance measure
Sudhindra Baliga
July-September 2020, 38(3):209-210
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.296642  PMID:33004716
  1,682 157 -
Tobacco cessation effects on oral health by group and individualized motivational therapy in 12 to 18 years old boys – A randomized controlled study
Kinjal Patel, Anshula Deshpande, Aishwarya Jain, Yash Shah, Pulkit Kalyan
July-September 2020, 38(3):280-288
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_333_20  PMID:33004727
Background/Introduction: Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in their childhood or adolescence. Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate the Group Motivational Therapy (GMT) and Individualised Motivational therapy (IMT) for tobacco cessation in adolescents. Methodology: Oral screening was done in a village named Vehra Khadi near Anand. One hundred and eight adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years were included in the study. They were randomly divided into three groups namely Group 1 - Interventional group consisting of 36 adolescents who were given GMT; Group 2 - Interventional group consisting of 36 adolescents who were given IMT; and Group 3 -3 6 age - matched Negative control group. Hence, a total sample size of 108 was evaluated for tobacco consumption frequency, passive smoking, gingival index, and stain index and followed up for 9 months for the effect of both interventional group as well as positive control. Results: Frequency of tobacco consumption was reduced from baseline to 9 months' follow-up for both the interventional groups, which was statistically significant with <0.001 percent P value showing 84.38% change by intervention 1 and 98.30% in intervention 2. Conclusion: Group and individualized motivation serves as an effective means for tobacco cessation among adolescents. Improvement in gingival health and reduction of the tobacco consumption was observed with motivational intervention.
  1,640 138 -
Clinical and radiographic analysis of traumatized primary teeth and permanent successors: Longitudinal study
Daniela Maria Carvalho Pugliesi, Lisa Danielly C Araujo, Valdeci Elias S Junior, Robson F Cunha
July-September 2020, 38(3):232-237
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_324_20  PMID:33004720
Background: Dental trauma can determine the occurrence of sequelae in the deciduous tooth and due to the anatomical proximity to the germ of the successor permanent tooth, it frequently causes changes to the developing teeth. Aims: The objective of this study was to analyze clinically and radiographically traumatized primary teeth and permanent successors in children aged 0–8 years. Materials and Methods: Initially, a sample selection of medical records was made, designating the patients who fit the requirements; 247 patients were analyzed, totaling 379 traumatized primary teeth and 162 successive permanent teeth. Statistical Analysis: The results were developed using the Proportion Test and the Chi-square test at the 5% significance level. Results: Injuries to hard tissue prevailed (57%), with emphasis on coronary enamel fracture (49.1%). After clinical and radiographic examinations, 78% of traumatized primary teeth maintained pulpal vitality. At the clinical evaluation, the frequency of the developmental disorders observed in permanent successors was 10.5%, with enamel hypocalcification being the most common sequela. 17.3% of the clinical changes in the successor permanent teeth were caused by trauma to the supporting tissue, with the intrusive dislocation being responsible for the largest number of damages (37.5%). Conclusion: Based on the results found, it was concluded that the trauma occurring in the primary dentition were recorded and monitored more precisely and about the evaluated successive permanent teeth, except for the prevalence of sequelae found, the other factors are in agreement with the findings in the literature.
  1,529 236 -
Effect of Aerva sanguinolenta (Lal bishalyakarani) plant extract on biofilm-induced human enamel demineralization: An in vitro study
Shabnam Zahir, Tamal Kanti Pal, Abhijit Sengupta, Shibendu Biswas, Shyamal Bar
July-September 2020, 38(3):238-246
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_312_20  PMID:33004721
Background: Controlling cariogenic biofilm formation by plant extracts could add to preventive strategies to dental caries. Objective: To evaluate in vitro the role of Aerva Sanguinolenta ethanolic extract on biofilm-induced microbial human enamel demineralization. Methodology: The prepared enamel sections of study group (SG), positive control group (PCG), and negative control group (NCG) were immersed in 2 ml of 0.2% ethanolic extract of A. sanguinolenta, 0.12% chlorhexidine, and distilled water, respectively, for 2 min before subjecting to closed batch culture technique utilizing mono- or dual-species culture media of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Quantification of biofilm and demineralization of enamel was performed by crystal violet (CV) assay and scanning electron microscope (SEM) attached to energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, respectively. Statistical Analysis: Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were used for analysis. Results: CV assay of biofilm recorded the highest and lowest optical absorbance value in NC3 (2.728660) and PC3 (0.364200), respectively. Thus, biofilm formation is highest in NCG and lowest among PCG. Surface roughness and porosity in enamel are greatest among NCG and lowest among SG as evident by SEM. Wt% of calcium (S3 47.7170) and phosphorus ion (S3 22.7330) was highest in SG, closely resembling that of B enamel (Ca = 41.9530, P = 19.6650). Wt% of oxygen is lowest in SG (S3 28.8920) and resembles baseline O2 (37.4950). Thus, the amount of biofilm formation is moderate and amount of demineralization of enamel is least among SGs. Conclusion: Enamel exposed to 2 ml of 0.2% solution of A. sanguinolenta for 2 min could fairly inhibit formation of biofilm and positively inhibit underlying demineralization in cariogenic environment.
  1,457 181 -
Comparative evaluation of the predictive value of cariogram and informal caries risk assessment among school-going children in the age group of 8–9 years of Yamuna Nagar District, Haryana
Jyoti Sharma, Monika Gupta, Inder Kumar Pandit, Neeraj Gugnani, Lata Kiran Mehta
July-September 2020, 38(3):266-273
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_237_19  PMID:33004725
Aim: This longitudinal, observational study was conducted in the schools of Yamunanagar, Haryana, to evaluate and compare the predictive value of formal type of caries risk assessment using reduced Cariogram software, including only seven factors and informal type among 8–9 years' school-going children. Materials and Methods: A total of 111 school-going children were included in the study. Risk profile for each child was created using cariogram as well as informal factors. The same children were scheduled for re-examination at an interval of 9 and 18 months. The caries status was recorded again using the Collapsed International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) concept. Statistical Analysis: The precoded data were transferred to the computer and analyzed using the SPSS software (version 17.0). Data were analyzed for the identification of children with lesion progression and numbers of lesions progressing using the Transition Scoring System. Results: Cariogram being a multifactorial model gives significant individual weightage to each etiological factor causing dental caries as compared to informal caries risk assessment which though easy to implement yet unstructured unlike cariogram and thus does not guarantee consistent implementation. Conclusion: Cariogram is a perfect option for patient motivation and supports the clinician in decision making for planning preventive strategies for the patients. Along with this, a combination of the factors for informal caries risk assessment can help in making a simple yet multifactorial model which can be applied in daily practice.
  1,404 163 -
Reflective learning for behavioral guidance in pediatric dentistry
Richa Khanna, Rajeev Kumar Singh, Rameshwari Singhal
July-September 2020, 38(3):293-303
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_33_20  PMID:33004729
Introduction: Basic behavioral guidance (BBG) skills help in delivery of quality health care in pediatric dentistry. The complex nature of these skills, warrants analyzing actions performed. An appropriate scientific way to do this is by “reflection.” Hence, the present study was designed to introduce “reflection of action” as means for learning BBG skills by undergraduates in pediatric dentistry. Materials and Methods: Participants (dental undergraduate) performed oral prophylaxis (two visits) in pediatric patients (age 3–7 years) with application of BBG skills, under video recording. They were instructed regarding “reflection on action.” The learners then reviewed own videos and wrote reflections. Reflections were assessed on Boud's 4R framework and feedback was given by the faculty. Reflective writing was repeated for a second visit. Knowledge of the learners in using reflections for learning was assessed by retrospective pretest posttest questionnaire. Video recordings were scored for BBG skills. Acceptability of the intervention was addressed by satisfaction questionnaire. Results: There was a significant improvement in the knowledge of participants in using reflections for learning these skills. All participants were able to “revisit” (R1 level under Boud's 4R framework) patient encounter in their written reflections. Sixteen participants exhibited shift toward higher levels in the next visit. Video scores of learners also improved significantly over both visits. Students were satisfied with the content, delivery, and relevance of the new educational intervention. Conclusion: The strong need of improving BBG skills in pediatric dentistry was met by “reflection on action.” There was improvement in the knowledge of students in using reflections for learning and application of behavior guidance skills and was well accepted.
  1,396 158 -
Accidental displacement of primary anterior teeth following extraction of neonatal teeth
M Sridhar, AJ Sai Sankar, K Siva Sankar, K Kiran Kumar
July-September 2020, 38(3):311-314
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_48_20  PMID:33004731
Eruption of the first tooth at 6 months of age is a significant stage in a child's life. However, the presence of a tooth in the oral cavity of a newborn can lead to a lot of delusions. Natal and neonatal teeth are of utmost importance not only to a dentist but also for a pediatrician due to parental anxiety, folklore superstitions, and numerous complications associated with it. The present case report describes a 1.5 cm × 1.5 cm, slow-growing, soft-tissue gingival mass which developed following the extraction of a tooth-like structure in a 4-month-old male patient. Histological examination revealed that it contained a tooth-like hard tissue intermingled with bone and fibrous tissue. Based on clinical and histological findings, the present case was diagnosed as gingival hyperplasia with displaced tooth buds of 71 and 81, which might be due to chronic irritation or traumatic extraction of the neonatal teeth. No abnormal recurrence of the lesion was detected during the follow-up period. However, postoperative clinical and radiographic photographs further reconfirmed the absence of tooth in relation to 71 and 81.
  1,284 236 -
Efficacy of chlorhexidine wipes on colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in both ventilator and nonventilator patients in pediatric intensive care unit
PN Navya, G Dhananjaya, Prakash Chandra
July-September 2020, 38(3):289-292
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_268_20  PMID:33004728
Objective: In this coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, pediatric children who are admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU) are more susceptible to ventilator-associated pneumonia. Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the second-most common hospital-acquired infection in pediatric ICU. Oral hygiene maintenance is a challenge here. To maintain oral hygiene and to prevent colonization of microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus which cause ventilator-associated pneumonia, a study was conducted, which aimed at finding the efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX) wipes (as an oral hygiene aid) on colonization of these organisms in pediatric ICU. Methods and Methodology: The study was conducted among twenty children (8 in ventilation and 12 without ventilation) in the age range of 6–14 years admitted in the pediatric ICU. Swab sample was taken on the 1st day from both groups. Culturing of swab sample was done for colonization of microorganisms. CHX gluconate with a concentration of 0.2% was used as wipes. Swab sample was collected at the end of the 2nd day. Culturing of swab sample was done for colonization of microorganisms. Statistical analysis was done. Results: A statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.04) was seen in the ventilator group with a mean of 0.75 ± 13.241 in the reduction of S. aureus count. P. aeruginosa growth was not seen in either of the groups before or after the use of CHX wipe. Conclusions: Standard oral hygiene practice has the potential to contribute to improved oral and general health of children in pediatric ICU. CHX wipes significantly reduced S. aureus count in ventilator patients. Hence, it could be used as an effective antimicrobial agent in pediatric ICU.
  1,382 138 -
Association between cognitive vulnerability, dental fear, and oral health status among schoolchildren in Bangalore city – A cross-sectional study
Santhiya Bairappan, Manjunath P Puranik, Namita Shanbhag
July-September 2020, 38(3):222-231
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_362_19  PMID:33004719
Context: Dental anxiety and fear is not only a psychological problem but also a dental health problem. It is important to understand how the cognitive elements influence child's dental anxiety/fear and interact with their oral health. Objective: This study was conducted among children to determine the association between cognitive vulnerability (CV) with dental fear and their oral health status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 schoolchildren aged 12–15 years in Bengaluru city. Methodology: The schools and participants were selected by cluster random and systematic random sampling method, respectively. Cognitive vulnerability and Index of Dental Anxiety and Fear (IDAF-4C+) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Oral health status was recorded using the World Health Organization 2013 proforma for children. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test, Student's t-test, Spearman's correlation, and multivariate hierarchical linear regression were used in this study. The statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results: Nearly half of the study participants had cognitive perceptions, dental anxiety/fear, phobia, and stimulus toward dental treatment. Majority had dental caries and gingival bleeding. Cognitive vulnerability, dental anxiety/fear, phobia, and stimulus were independent of the age and gender and were associated with socioeconomic status. A significant correlation was found between participants' CV, IDAF-4C+, dental caries, and gingival bleeding. Cognitive vulnerability was a significant predictor of dental caries and gingival bleeding. Dental anxiety/fear and dental phobia were significant predictors of dental caries. Conclusion: Oral health status was significantly poorer and was associated with CV, dental anxiety/fear, phobia, and stimulus. Cognitive elements together with dental fear influenced oral health.
  1,094 162 -
Oral melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy: Management of a case affecting the maxilla
Anuradha Agrawal, Jaya Joshi, Deepak Agrawal, Pratiksha Kumar, Bharat Modi
July-September 2020, 38(3):319-322
DOI:10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_169_18  PMID:33004733
Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor is a rare benign congenital neoplasm involving the head-and-neck region found in infants <1 year of age. The lesion most commonly affects the maxilla. We report the case of a 4-month-old male child with a tumor involving the anterior region of the maxilla along with a brief review of literature, differential diagnosis, and treatment.
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