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Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Official publication of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
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   2016| July-September  | Volume 34 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 25, 2016

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Comparative evaluation of diffusion hypoxia and psychomotor skills with or without postsedation oxygenation following administration of nitrous oxide in children undergoing dental procedures: A clinical study
Vineet Inder Singh Khinda, Parvesh Bhuria, Paramjit Khinda, Shiminder Kallar, Gurlal Singh Brar
July-September 2016, 34(3):217-222
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186751  PMID:27461803
Background: Diffusion hypoxia is the most serious potential complication associated with nitrous oxide. It occurs during the recovery period. Hence, administration of 100% oxygen is mandatory as suggested by many authors. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the occurrence/nonoccurrence of diffusion hypoxia in two groups of patients undergoing routine dental treatment under nitrous oxide sedation when one group is subjected to 7 min of postsedation oxygenation and the second group of the patients is made to breathe room air for the similar period. Materials and Methods: A total of sixty patients within the age group of 7–10 years requiring invasive dental procedures were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each using chit method. In the control group, patients were administered 100% oxygen postsedation, whereas, in the study group, patients were made to breathe room air postsedation. Various parameters (pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation [SpO2]) were recorded pre- and post-operatively. Data were collected and then sent for statistical analysis. Results: The mean postoperative SpO2 at measurement times 1, 3, 5, and 7 min in both the groups was higher than the mean preoperative SpO2. This increase was statistically significant. No significant difference was found between the Trieger test scores. Conclusion: This study proves that clinical occurrence of diffusion hypoxia is not possible while following the routine procedure of nitrous oxide sedation.
  20,820 332 3
New electronic habit reminder for the management of thumb-sucking habit
Srinath Krishnappa, MS Rani, Sandeep Aariz
July-September 2016, 34(3):294-297
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186750  PMID:27461817
Methods for intervention of nonnutritive sucking habits include counseling, positive reinforcement, calendar with rewards, adhesive bandage, bitter nail polish, long sleeves, and appliance therapy. All these methods have been reported in the literature with variable success rates. We present a case of an 8-year-old child with thumb-sucking habit successfully managed in a short period of 5 months by a new electronic habit reminder, an extraoral appliance which was designed to overcome the disadvantages associated with intraoral appliances.
  11,542 1,142 -
A comparative evaluation of microleakage and compressive strength of Ketac Molar, Giomer, Zirconomer, and Ceram-x: An in vitro study
Rashmeet Walia, Purshottam Jasuja, Kanika Gupta Verma, Suruchi Juneja, Aditi Mathur, Lovejeet Ahuja
July-September 2016, 34(3):280-284
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186746  PMID:27461814
Background: Microleakage around dental restorative material and strength to withstand the masticatory forces is major problem in dentistry. Instead, many new materials available, very few actually bond to tooth surface and bear masticatory load. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the microleakage and compressive strength of Ketac Molar, Giomer, Zirconomer, and Ceram-x. Materials and Methods: For the evaluation of microleakage, Class V cavities were prepared on sixty human premolar teeth and divided into four study groups (n = 15): Group I (Ketac Molar), Group II (Giomer), Group III (Zirconomer), and Group IV (Ceram-x). The samples were thermocycled and subjected to dye penetration test. The sections were made and evaluated under stereomicroscope at × 40 magnification. For the compressive strength evaluation, sixty cylindrical specimens were fabricated measuring 5 mm × 6 mm and grouped into four study groups (n = 15): Group I (Ketac Molar), Group II (Giomer), Group III (Zirconomer), and Group IV (Ceram-x). All were then subjected to the Universal Testing Machine at crosshead speed of 1 mm/s. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using paired t-test and ANOVA. Results: The microleakage was found insignificant (P > 0.05) for all study groups, with Giomer showing maximum followed by Zirconomer, Ceram-x, and Ketac Molar. The compressive strength was found to be highly significant (P < 0.01) with the maximum score for Giomer followed by Ceram-x, Zirconomer, and Ketac Molar. Conclusion: The sealing ability was maximum in Ketac Molar, Zirconomer, Ceram-x, and Giomer whereas the compressive strength was maximum for Giomer followed by Ceram-x, Zirconomer, and Ketac Molar.
  9,433 745 3
Color stability of esthetic restorative materials used in pediatric dentistry: An in vitro study
Hanisha Adusumilli, Jogendra Sai Sankar Avula, Pranitha Kakarla, Sujatha Bandi, George Manoj Kumar Mallela, Krishna Vallabhaneni
July-September 2016, 34(3):233-237
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186740  PMID:27461806
Background: Children consume foods that are colorful which contain food additives that stain not only the tooth structure but also the restorations. As esthetics is of prime concern for both parents and children nowadays, long-term color stability of restorative materials is of utmost importance. Aim: To evaluate the color stability of two tooth-colored restorative materials (conventional glass ionomer cement [GIC] and giomer) when immersed in various consumable drinks and food (aerated beverage, ice candy, and health drink) at different immersion periods (low, moderate, and high). Materials and Methods: A total of 100 specimens were made with each restorative material. Ten were used as a control and remaining (n = 90) as experimental. The experimental specimens were divided into three groups based on media of immersion (n = 30 each) and were further divided into three subgroups based on immersion time (n = 10 each). The color changes (ΔE values) were measured using spectrophotometer. Results: Both the tested materials showed color change; however, conventional GIC showed greater ΔE values when compared to giomer and the samples exposed to aerated beverage resulted in highest color change. It is also noticed that greater the exposure time, higher are the ΔE values. Conclusion: Giomer showed more resistance to color change than conventional GIC with all the tested media and immersion regimes.
  8,258 685 6
Determination of physical height from crown dimensions of deciduous tooth: A dental morphometric study
C Ramanna, Venkatesh V Kamath, C Sharada, N Srikanth
July-September 2016, 34(3):262-268
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186743  PMID:27461811
Background: Dental morphometrics is a subject of great significance in forensic odontology in identification of an individual. Use of teeth to represent a physical profile is valuable for identification of an individual. Aims and Objectives: The present study aims to assess the clinical crown length (CL) of erupted deciduous teeth and height of the child. A correlation of these parameters was attempted to arrive at a mathematical equation which would formulate a ratio of tooth CL to individual height that would support in estimating the probable height of the child. Materials and Methods: About 60 children (30 males and 30 females) of age ranged from 3–6 years were included in this study. Clinical vertical CLs of the deciduous dentition (tooth numbers 51, 52, 53, 54, and 55) were calculated using digital Vernier calipers (Aerospace Ltd., Bengaluru, Karnataka, India) on the cast models. Child height was measured using a standard measuring tape. Ratios of deciduous CL to height of the child were recorded. Linear stepwise forward regression analysis was applied to predict the probability of CL of a tooth most likely to support in prediction of physical height of the child. Results: Tabulated results showed a probable correlation between tooth CL and height of the child. Tooth CLs of deciduous upper right second molar (55) among the males, lateral incisor (52) among females, and canine (53) using the combined male and female data were statistically significant, and they approximately predicted the child height with minimal variations. Mathematically derived equations based on linear stepwise forward regression analysis using sixty children data are height prediction (derived from combined data of male and female children) = 400.558 + 90.264 (53 CL), male child height prediction (derived from data of male children) = 660.290 + 72.970 (55 CL), and female child height prediction (derived from data of female children) = −187.942 + 194.818 (52 CL). Conclusion: In conclusion, clinical vertical CL is an important parameter in prediction of individual height and possible identification of the individual. An extension of the similar technique to all the deciduous dentition using a larger group of children would probably give us the best options available among vertical CLs for prediction of the child height.
  7,016 434 3
Management of grossly decayed primary anteriors using various intracanal post systems: A clinical study
Manjul Mehra, Rashu Grover, Inder Kumar Pandit, Nikhil Srivastava, Neeraj Gugnani, Monika Gupta
July-September 2016, 34(3):199-203
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186749  PMID:27461800
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to clinically evaluate and compare the efficacy and retention of various types of intracanal posts in the restoration of grossly decayed deciduous anterior teeth. The various posts used were polyethylene post, glass post, and composite post. Materials and Methods: A total number of 16 patients with 45 grossly decayed primary anterior teeth were selected. After biomechanical preparation and obturation, patients were randomly divided on the basis of posts to be used into three groups (Group I: Polyethylene post; Group II: Glass post, and Group III: Composite post). Then, space was created in the obturated canal and posts were placed, followed by core build up. Results: After an interval of 12 months, 86.67% of the teeth exhibited complete retention of the post restored with polyethylene post (P > 0.005) and 93.3% of the teeth exhibited complete retention of the post that were restored with glass post (P > 0.005) whereas only 60% of the teeth exhibited complete retention of the post that were restored with composite post (P< 0.005). Only 20% of the teeth exhibited marginal discoloration in both Groups I and III and 13.33% in Group II and this was nonsignificant. Conclusion: Both glass post and polyethylene post proved to be effective. Glass post showed the maximum retention and marginal adaptation followed by polyethylene post. Thus, it appears to be of potential interest for use especially in clinical pediatric dentistry.
  6,257 830 1
MEDLINE, pubmed, and pubmed central ®: Analogous or dissimilar
ND Shashikiran
July-September 2016, 34(3):197-198
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186748  PMID:27461799
  5,099 379 2
An in vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity of curcumin against human dental pulp fibroblasts
Praveenkumar S Mandrol, Kishor Bhat, AR Prabhakar
July-September 2016, 34(3):269-272
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186757  PMID:27461812
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of curcumin to primary dental pulp fibroblasts in vitro. Materials and Methods: Dental pulp fibroblasts from primary maxillary central incisors were cultured and used for cytotoxicity tests after the fourth passage. Ninety-five percent curcumin was diluted with dimethylsulfoxide to prepare 100%, 50%, and 25% concentrations. Each concentration of curcumin was added in triplicate into 96-well microtiter plate containing the fibroblast culture at 104/well. Cells without treatment served as a control group. The number of viable cells after 48 hrs incubation at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere of 5 % CO2 and 95 % air was determined by the 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The relative viability of pulp cells was expressed as color intensity of the number in the experimental wells relative to that of the control group. Absorbances were read at 492 nm on a microplate reader with a background subtraction at 620 nm. Results: Cell viability of primary dental pulp fibroblasts to 25%, 50%, and 100% curcumin concentration was 174%, 310%, and 317%, respectively. Conclusions: Curcumin promotes cell viability and induces proliferation of primary dental pulp fibroblasts and has the potential to be developed into an economical and reliable medicament for vital pulp therapy.
  4,991 474 7
Evaluation of antimicrobial effect of azadirachtin plant extract (Soluneem ) on commonly found root canal pathogenic microorganisms (viz. Enterococcus faecalis) in primary teeth: A microbiological study
Shanal Shah, Karthik Venkataraghavan, Prashant Choudhary, Shameer Mohammad, Krishna Trivedi, Shalin G Shah
July-September 2016, 34(3):210-216
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186741  PMID:27461802
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Soluneem when used as an irrigating solution along with other commonly used irrigating solution sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Microorganism used in this study was E. faecalis (Microbial Type Culture Collection 439). Test substance used was Soluneem , which was obtained from Vittal Mallya Scientific Research Foundation (VMSRF), Bengaluru. This study was conducted in a microbiology laboratory (Biocare Research India Pvt., Ltd. Laboratory, Ahmedabad, Gujarat) to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Soluneem (Azadirachtin) on E. faecalis. Antimicrobial activity testing was performed using the macrobroth dilution method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. All determinations were performed thrice. Results: Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was seen as 2.6% for Soluneem while the same was seen at 0.1% for NaOCl. Independent sample t-test was carried out to compare the MBC of Soluneem and NaOCl, which showed that there was no statistically significant difference between them, i.e., 2.6% Soluneem was as effective as 0.1% NaOCl. Conclusion: Soluneem showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis at various concentrations. It was also found that the efficacy of Soluneem at 2.6% concentration and above was relatively similar to that of gold standard irrigating solution (NaOCl) on inhibition of E. faecalis.
  4,896 467 4
Assessment of salivary and plaque pH and oral health status among children with and without intellectual disabilities
G Radha, V Swathi, Abhishek Jha
July-September 2016, 34(3):257-261
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186753  PMID:27461810
Background: This study explores the association of disabilities and oral health. The aim of the study was to assess the salivary and plaque pH and oral health status of children with and without disabilities. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 schoolchildren (50 with disabilities and 50 without disabilities) were examined from 9 to 15 years age group. Saliva and plaque pH analysis were done to both the groups. Clinical data were collected on periodontal status, dental caries using WHO criteria. pH values of different groups, difference between the means were calculated using independent t-test, and frequency distribution was analyzed using Chi-square test. Statistical significance, P value was set at 0.05. Results: Mean plaque and salivary pH scores were lesser (5.73 and 5.67) in children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) (P< 0.001). Subjects with disabilities had also statistically significant higher CPI scores and decayed, missing, and filled scores than their healthy counterparts (P< 0.001). Conclusion: There is a statistically significant difference in plaque and salivary pH among children with and without ID with lower plaque and salivary pH among children with ID. In addition to this, the oral health was also more compromised in children with ID, which confirms a need for preventive treatment for these children.
  4,818 345 2
Health camps in schools and content analysis of the school textbooks: A cross-sectional study in Tamil Nadu
PR Geetha Priya, Sharath Asokan, D Kandaswamy, S Malliga, G Arthi
July-September 2016, 34(3):223-226
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186756  PMID:27461804
Background: School textbooks have been considered as an effective platform for promoting oral health. The information on oral health in the Indian school textbooks has not been evaluated. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the contents of school textbooks on oral health and to quantitatively analyze the school health camps and guest lectures/demonstrations conducted in the schools of three districts in Tamil Nadu. Methodology: Twenty schools which participated in the study followed the Central Board of Secondary Education, matriculation, or the state board syllabus. A questionnaire was designed to collect information about the medical camps, dental camps, guest lectures, and demonstrations conducted in the last academic year from the schools. The questionnaires were distributed among the school teachers of grades I–V. They were asked to provide photocopies of the topics on oral health which were included in the syllabus. Content analysis of the information on oral health-related topics in the school textbooks was done. Descriptive statistics of the details of the camps and lectures was done using Pearson's Chi-square test (SPSS version 17) (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois, USA). Results: There was no significant difference in the number of medical camps (P = 0.445), dental camps (P = 0.055), and guest lectures (P = 0.069) organized among the three boards of schools. Basic information on the parts and type of teeth, tooth decay, and brushing were present in the textbooks of all three boards of schools. Conclusion: The school textbooks of all the three boards contained basic and adequate information on oral health. Periodic revisions of the content and quality of information in the school textbooks are essential. To make the information sticky for long-term, reinforcements in the form of school health education is needed.
  4,703 286 2
Awareness and prevention of patient gag reflex among pedodontists in India: A web-based survey
Soumik Roy, Deepak P Bhayya, Shilpi Gupta, Kanchi Upadhyay, Sonia Tiwari, Ashish Rao
July-September 2016, 34(3):238-243
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186742  PMID:27461807
Aim: The aim of this study is to devise a reliable and valid web-based survey to predict the awareness level and prevention of patient's gag reflex among Indian pedodontists. Materials and Methods: An 11-question predictive gagging survey was created, refined, and tested on 377 pedodontists. The questions focused on age group, common procedure associated with gag reflex and the most common technique adapted by dentists in their clinics to prevent gag. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in gagging reflex among age groups with 53.5% of patients reported anxiety and fear as a main cause of gag; behavioral modification technique was considered as the most reliable method for gagging prevention in 68.5% of patients and there was no statistically significant difference in gagging severity index among patients irrespective of age, causes, and methods used to prevent it. Conclusion: The web-based gagging survey established that level of awareness regarding management of patient's gag is significantly low among pedodontists in India and hence is a major hindrance in the clinical practice.
  4,691 280 1
An adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in disguise
Rajesh B Dhirawani, Sanyog Pathak, K Mallikaarjuna, Ankit Sharma
July-September 2016, 34(3):291-293
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186752  PMID:27461816
Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a slowly growing benign tumor of the oral cavity. It accounts of 3-7% of all odontogenic tumors. It is seen to occur commonly in the anterior maxilla. The tumor is usually associated with an impacted tooth with maxillary canine being the most common tooth. AOT is seen in a younger group, especially below 20 years with a female preponderance. AOT occurs in two main variants: Central or intraosseous which is more common and second is peripheral which is rare. Radiologically, it represents as a radiolucent lesion with radiopaque foci usually an impacted or a supernumerary tooth. With a close clinical and radiographic resemblance to dentigerous cyst correct diagnosis and treatment is necessary. AOT being benign in nature requires a conservative management with enucleation. This is a case report of a 13-year-old girl with an AOT occurring in the anterior maxillary region.
  4,325 308 1
Predicting the mesiodistal width of unerupted canine and premolars by using width of the permanent mandibular incisors and first molar in the Himachal population
Sudhir Mittal, Anirudh Pathak, Kavita Mittal, Vasundhara Pathania
July-September 2016, 34(3):204-209
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186739  PMID:27461801
Introduction: The determination of tooth size to arch length discrepancy in mixed dentition requires an accurate prediction of mesiodistal width of unerupted permanent teeth. Presently available methods use only the mesiodistal width of mandibular incisors. Melgaco (2007) introduced a new method of estimating width of unerupted canine and premolars by using mesiodistal width of incisors and first permanent molar. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine linear regression equation for estimating the widths of mandibular permanent canines and premolars using mesiodistal width of mandibular incisors and first molars in the Himachal population. Materials and Methods: Dental casts of 250 subjects were selected from the Himachal population who had fully erupted mandibular permanent incisors, canine, premolar, and first molar. Actual mesiodistal width of all fully erupted teeth were measured with digital vernier caliper and the values obtained were subjected to statistical and regression analysis. Results: High values of correlation (0.957) were found while considering Melgaco's method. Conclusion: From this study, it can be evaluated that Melgaco's method gives better prediction of unerupted permanent canines and premolars, and the equation Y = 13.48 + 0.614X can be suggested for the present population.
  4,255 378 2
Evaluation of total antioxidant level of saliva in modulation of caries occurrence and progression in children
Naveen Reddy Banda, Garima Singh, Vandana Markam
July-September 2016, 34(3):227-232
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186747  PMID:27461805
Context: Recent studies have implicated a direct relation between dental caries and salivary total antioxidant level (TAL), which can be suggested as an indicator (either harmful or protective) for susceptibility of individuals for dental caries. Aim: To evaluate the total antioxidant level (TAL) in unstimulated saliva of children, and to correlate the TAL with caries experience and BMI (body mass index). Settings and Design: 60 children, aged 6-12 yrs, were randomly selected for the study. Two groups were made (study group n=30 and control group n=30), and subdivisions based on gender were made out of both groups [male (n=15) and female (n=15)]. In control group, subjects with no dental caries and study group, subjects having decayed teeth score ≥4 were included. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS V. 21). Shapiro – Wilks test showed that TAL (absorbance) did not follow normal distribution. Hence, for comparison between cases and control for TAL non-parametric test namely Mann- Whitney U test was applied. Results: Statistically significant strong positive correlation was seen between age and TAL (P< 0.05).
  4,167 368 3
Caries risk assessment among 12–13 year old school-going children of government and private schools of Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu
Madhu M Mitha, JE Nijesh, Preetha Elizabeth Chaly, Indra Priyadharshini, Mohammed Junaid, S Vaishnavi
July-September 2016, 34(3):244-248
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186745  PMID:27461808
Background: Dental caries is as ancient as humankind and has the longest association with the dental profession, an association that is punctuated with agony and ecstasy. The agonizing fact is that despite several efforts toward total eradication, this disease is still prevalent. Nevertheless, an ecstatic success of the profession is the global decline in the incidence compared to the yesteryears' epidemics. Hence, predicting dental caries earlier is a boon. One such model to predict is cariogram developed by Bratthall in 1996. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the caries risk among 12–13 year old school-going children of government and private schools of Tirupur district in Tamil Nadu using cariogram computer model. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 136 study subjects of 12–13 year of age, who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were collected using a predesigned questionnaire and scored according to a standardized protocol. The Chi-square test was used to find differences between caries-related factors and cariogram group. The correlation was acquired using Spearman's correlation. Results: Government school study subjects had 56% of chance of avoiding caries whereas the private school study subjects had 66% of chance of avoiding caries in future and the differences were statistically significant (P = 0.001). A negative correlation was observed between the chance to avoid dental caries and cariogram sectors. Conclusion: The majority of the study subjects from government school belonged to medium-risk category and private school subjects belonged to low-risk category which inferred that private school students have high chance to avoid dental caries compared to government study subjects.
  4,100 379 -
Evaluation of chemokines in gingival crevicular fluid in children with dental caries and stainless steel crowns: A clinico-biochemical study
Naveen Kommineni Kumar, Veera Kishore Kasa Reddy, Prathyusha Padakandla, Harshini Togaru, Swathi Kalagatla, Sarath N Chandra
July-September 2016, 34(3):273-279
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186754  PMID:27461813
Aims and Objectives: The study was conducted to detect the presence of macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and MIP-1β and estimate their levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in children with dental caries and stainless steel crowns. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 children with primary dentition were selected and categorized into four groups with twenty in each group; Group 1 - healthy subjects, Group 2 - dental caries, Group 3 - dental caries involving the pulp, and Group 4 - stainless steel crowns. GCF samples were collected by an extra-crevicular method with microcapillary pipettes. The GCF samples were quantified by ELISA and the levels of MIP-1α and MIP-1β were determined. Results: MIP-1α and MIP-1β were detected in all the samples. Highest mean concentration in GCF was obtained for Group 3 followed by Groups 2 and 4 while the lowest concentration was seen in Group 1. This suggests that MIP-1α and MIP-1β levels in GCF increased proportionately with the inflammation. Conclusions: GCF serves as a noninvasive diagnostic fluid to measure biomarkers released during dental caries initiation and progression. MIP-1α and MIP-1β chemokines can be considered as novel biomarkers, in biological mechanism underlying the pathogenesis and inflammation in children with dental caries and stainless steel crowns.
  4,107 365 -
Caries prevalence of school-going boys and girls according to cleaning methods and soft drink-taking frequency in different localities, in and around Guwahati City
Chandana Kalita, Bapukan Choudhary, Anjan Kumar Saikia, Pratap Chandra Sarma
July-September 2016, 34(3):249-256
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186755  PMID:27461809
Background: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease, causes of which are mostly understood nowadays. This disease is not only treatable but also preventable, if detected in its initial stage. In a developing country like India, facility of dental treatment is available mostly for urban population, whereas a very common approach of dental disease treatment is still traditional for the rural people. Objective: The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of dental caries, teeth cleaning methods, and sweet and soft drink-taking frequency among boys and girls of Guwahati City and its nearby semi-urban and rural areas. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional study was carried out among school going boys and girls of 3-17 years group, using the modified WHO oral health survey form. The number of population was 2396 from urban locality, 2370 from semi-urban, and 2467 from rural. Results: Caries prevalence is much higher in urban (62.77%), contrary to rural where 76% of the sample is caries free. Those who take sweet occasionally suffered less or almost caries free (7.93% in urban and 0% in rural) than among those who consume it more than five times a day (90.75% in urban, 100% in semi-urban, and 99.33% in rural). Discussion and Conclusion: Urban localities are two times and semi-urban areas are 1.64 times more at risk of dental caries than rural areas. The odds ratio for cleaning frequency shows that the effect of cleaning by brush on caries is less (78%, not significant) than chewing stick while the risk associated with finger and charcoal use is about 19.63 times and 7.11 times, respectively.
  4,174 248 7
Impact of various extra-oral factors on caries experience among mentally disabled children residing in Bhopal city, central India: A cross-sectional study
Sonal Chhajed, Garima Bhambhani, Rohit Agarwal, Swati Balsaraf
July-September 2016, 34(3):285-290
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.186744  PMID:27461815
Background: Dental caries is the most common dental problem among the mentally challenged children. There are various extra-oral factors responsible for high caries experience among such children. Aim: The aim of the present investigation was to study the impact of various extra-oral factors on dental caries experience among mentally challenged children residing in Bhopal city, Central India. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-two children between the age group 5 and 15 years were included in this descriptive cross-sectional study. A pretested pro forma was used to record information about socioeconomic status, demographic data, mental retardation (MR) type, and intelligent quotient. The clinical examination was performed to evaluate dental caries and treatment needs using the World Health Organization dentition status and treatment needs index. Results: The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT and dmft) were 2.32 and 2.21, respectively. Age, parent occupation, income, and intelligent quotient were significant predictors of both DMFT and dmft. In addition, socio-economic status and type of MR were significant predictors of only DMFT. Conclusion: Dental health professionals should, therefore, be aware of the various extra-oral factors responsible for high caries experience of mentally challenged children. They should understand and provide basic treatment needs to such children.
  3,840 270 1
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