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Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Official publication of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
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   2016| April-June  | Volume 34 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 14, 2016

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Oral health status of children suffering from thyroid disorders
NS Venkatesh Babu, Purna B Patel
April-June 2016, 34(2):139-144
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180443  PMID:27080964
Background: Thyroid dysfunction is the second most common disorder of the endocrine system that can affect any system of the body. The oral cavity can be adversely affected by either an excess or deficiency of these hormones. Aim of the Study: To assess and compare the oral health status of children suffering from thyroid disorders and healthy children. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 children aged between 2 years and 16 years were allocated into two groups. The study group consisted of 100 children with thyroid dysfunction (hypothyroidism/hyperthyroidism), while the control group consisted of 100 healthy children. Gingival index, plaque index, DMFT (Decayed missing filled teeth Index for permanent teeth) & Dmft index (Decayed missing filled teeth Index for primary teeth) and modified developmental defects of enamel (DDE) index were recorded and data were analyzed statistically. Results: Plaque and gingival scores were significantly higher in the thyroid group compared to the control group. DMFT and dmft scores were higher in the thyroid group than the control group but the difference in score was not statistically significant. Statistically significant DDE score was found in the thyroid group. Apart from increased susceptibility to caries and poor periodontal health condition, children with thyroid disorders were also found to have other oral manifestations such as macroglossia, open bite, and change in eruption pattern. Conclusion: Thyroid dysfunction (both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism) has impact on the oral health status. Children with thyroid disorders showed high prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease compared to the control group.
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Antibiotic overusage and resistance: A cross-sectional survey among pediatric dentists
Sapna Konde, Lalitha S Jairam, Preetha Peethambar, Sunil Raj Noojady, Narayan Chandra Kumar
April-June 2016, 34(2):145-151
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180444  PMID:27080965
Introduction: Most human orofacial infections originate from odontogenic infections and prescribing antibiotics has become a ubiquitous phenomenon. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized the inappropriate, indiscriminate, and irrational use of antibiotics leading to antibiotic resistance as a global problem. Objective: The objective of this survey is to compare the antibiotic prescription pattern and the awareness of antibiotic resistance among Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) practitioners and pediatric dentists. Materials and methods: A hundred BDS practitioners and 100 pediatric dentists included in the study were given a questionnaire containing both open-ended and closed-ended questions. The questionnaire comprised information pertaining to antibiotic prescription for most common oral conditions, commonly prescribed antibiotics, their dosage, etc. Results: The majority of the practitioners prescribed antibiotics for managing oral diseases. On comparing the prescription patterns between the BDS practitioners and pediatric dentists, there was an overprescription in the BDS group for many conditions, which was statistically significant. Amoxicillin was the most commonly prescribed drug in both the groups. In the presence of an anaerobic infection, the most preferred drug was a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid with metronidazole. With regard to the duration of antibiotic prescription, 74% BDS practitioners prescribed antibiotics as a 3-day course and 60% pediatric dentists resorted to a 5-day course, which was statistically significant. The awareness regarding antibiotic prophylaxis and antibiotic resistance was found to be adequate in both the groups. However, there was a general lack of awareness with regard to the guidelines for antibiotic prescribing in both the groups. Conclusion: Practitioners should prescribe antibiotics in accordance with the guidelines to curb antibiotic resistance, an emerging public health problem.
  10,961 997 12
A comparative evaluation of antibacterial effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite, Curcuma longa, and Camellia sinensis as irrigating solutions on isolated anaerobic bacteria from infected primary teeth
Neha Shashikant Dhariwal, Shivayogi M Hugar, Sheetal Harakuni, Suma Sogi, Harsha G Assudani, Laresh Naresh Mistry
April-June 2016, 34(2):165-171
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180447  PMID:27080968
Context: In endodontics, most of the commercial intra-canal medicaments have cytotoxic reactions and because of their inability to eliminate bacteria from dentinal tubules, recent medicine has turned its attention to the usage of biologic medication prepared from natural plants. The literature to testify the efficacy of natural alternatives in primary teeth is meagre and its effects as irrigating solutions need to be evaluated. Aim: To evaluate the antibacterial effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite, ethanolic extracts of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Camellia sinensis (green tea) as irrigating solutions against the anaerobic bacteria isolated from the root canals of infected primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients were selected based on the selected inclusion and exclusion criteria. Preoperative radiographs were taken. Rubber dam isolation and working length estimation were done, following which thirty samples were taken from the root canals of infected primary teeth using sterile absorbent paper points and transferred to tubes containing thioglycolate transport medium. The bacteria were then isolated using standard microbiological protocols and were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing using the three test irrigants. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 18 software using Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The most commonly isolated bacteria included Porphyromonas sp., Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus. Sodium hypochlorite and C. longa (turmeric) showed good antibacterial effect and were effective against most of the isolated bacteria. There was statistically significant difference in the antibacterial effect among the three tested groups (P < 0.001). The least effective was C. sinensis (green tea). Conclusion: The infected primary teeth almost always present with a polymicrobial structure with a wide variety of anaerobic bacteria. The chemo-mechanical preparation plays an important role in eradicating the population of predominant micro-organisms in treating these teeth with promising effects with the use of newer test irrigants while avoiding the side effects of sodium hypochlorite.
  6,867 650 2
Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in school children aged 8-12 years in Chennai
Savitha Deepthi Yannam, Deepti Amarlal, Chamarthi Vishnu Rekha
April-June 2016, 34(2):134-138
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180438  PMID:27080963
Objective: To investigate the prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH). Materials and Methods: A sample of 2,864 students aged 8-12 years were selected from government and private schools in Chennai. MIH was diagnosed clinically based on the diagnostic criteria established by the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (EAPD) 2003. Results: A total of 277 children (9.7%) had MIH. There was statistically significant difference in prevalence related to age but there was no statistical difference in prevalence with respect to gender. Conclusion: Prevalence of MIH was 9.7% in the child population residing in Chennai. Males and females were equally affected. The rate of occurrence and severity of MIH are more in the right mandibular first molar. The severity of MIH is more in molars compared to incisors (P < 0.001) and is more in government schools compared to private schools (P = 0.002).
  6,523 496 11
Comparison of different methods of cleaning and preparing occlusal fissure surface before placement of pit and fissure sealants: An in vivo study
Rahul J Hegde, Rochelle C Coutinho
April-June 2016, 34(2):111-114
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180403  PMID:27080958
Aim: To evaluate an individual method of cleaning and preparing occlusal fissure surface before placement of pit and fissure sealant and to determine a method for better retention of the sealant. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of 100 young permanent molar teeth divided into four equal groups: Group 1-Brushing only, Group 2-Application of pumice slurry, Group 3-Surface conditioning, and Group 4-Control (without any preparation). Subsequent to fissure preparation, the fissures were etched using 37% phosphoric acid except for Group 3, which was etched using 10% maleic acid for 30 s. The samples were then rinsed for 10 s using air water spray of the three-way syringe and dried using oil-free compressed air with a hand pump air pressure syringe. After ensuring a frosted appearance of the enamel at the fissure entrance, pit and fissure sealants were applied on the surface according to manufacturer's instructions. All the cases were clinically evaluated for retention after 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months of application and the retention rate was assessed based on the criteria proposed by Simonsen. Results: The pumice slurry group and surface conditioning group showed results with 100%, 96%, and 92% complete retention seen at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively. Conclusion: The pumice slurry group and surface conditioning group showed a significantly higher retention when compared to the brushing group, whereas the control group (without any preparation) showed the least retention when compared to all the other groups.
  5,882 912 2
The effect of different concentrations of water soluble azadirachtin (neem metabolite) on Streptococcus mutans compared with chlorhexidine
Amit R Kankariya, Alok R Patel, Sanket S Kunte
April-June 2016, 34(2):105-110
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180394  PMID:27080957
Despite advances in the development of anticaries chemotherapy, the newer agents are unable to control the initiation of dental caries. Research and development of natural antibacterial agents that are safe for the host as well as specific for oral pathogens is awaited. Neem tree extracts have been used for thousands of years for maintaining overall well-being. Chewing neem sticks in the morning is the most common indigenous method of cleaning the mouth in rural population. This has generated the interest of the dentists for the use of neem for controlling dental diseases. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative effect of different concentrations of water soluble azadirachtin (neem metabolite) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) against chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: Plaque was collected from 30 children aged 8-12 years reporting to the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Bharti Vidyapeeth Dental College, Pune and transported to the laboratory. After incubation of the plates the inhibitory zones were noted and the diameter of the zone of inhibition was measured and recorded to check the inhibition of growth of S. mutans. For testing the bacterial survival, the biofilms were prepared and colony forming units (CFU) was enumerated using a digital colony counter. Statistical Analysis Used: Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. Results: The results show that there was no statistically significant difference in the inhibition of S. mutans between 40% concentration of water soluble azadirachtin and chlorhexidine. Conclusions: This study concluded that 40% water soluble azadirachtin is as effective as 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse in reducing the S. mutans count in dental plaque. Hence, a water soluble formulation of azadirachtin may provide the maximum benefit to mankind to prevent dental caries.
  6,234 541 7
Ambras syndrome: A rare case report
A Ishita, GP Sujatha, GV Pramod, L Ashok
April-June 2016, 34(2):189-191
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180452  PMID:27080973
Congenital generalized hypertrichosis associated with gingival hyperplasia are rare cases published in literature. The frequency incidence of generalized congenital hypertrichosis is about one to billions of people. Hypertrichosis and gingival hyperplasia are termed as Ambras syndrome (AS), which can be noticed at birth or soon after. Here, is a rare case report of 4-year-old male child who presented with generalized hypertrichosis with gingival fibromatosis and dysmorphic facial features.
  6,306 227 1
Clinical performance of ICDAS II, radiovisiography, and alternating current impedance spectroscopy device for the detection and assessment of occlusal caries in primary molars
Rohit Singh, Shobha Tandon, Monika Rathore, Nitesh Tewari, Neha Singh, Abhinav Pradeep Shitoot
April-June 2016, 34(2):152-158
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180445  PMID:27080966
Objective: To investigate the clinical performance of International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS II) (a ranked visual scale), radiovisiography (RVG) (a digital radiography device), and an alternating current impedance spectroscopy (ACIS) device for the detection and assessment of occlusal caries in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five molars were assessed using all three systems under standardized in vivo conditions. They were then extracted and also assessed by examiners in vitro. Downer's histological scoring criterion was the validation gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and area under the receiver-operator curves were calculated for enamel caries and dentine caries. Repeatability was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The performances of the systems between in vivo and in vitro settings by the same examiner were also compared. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used to analyze the data. Comparison of the performance of all three systems for all caries and dentine caries using receiver operating characteristic curves was calculated using a range of cutoffs. Reliability was assessed using ICC method. Results: ICDAS II system showed the highest validity and repeatability for assessing occlusal caries in the primary molars. RVG was less accurate than the ICDAS II for detecting caries lesions confined to enamel. However, when dentine was involved, RVG was found to be as effective as ICDAS II. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, the in vivo results of ICDAS II and RVG were satisfactory and comparable to those obtained in vitro, with ICDAS II performing better. The ACIS device was least accurate among the three systems for caries assessment.
  5,304 358 3
Gorham's disease of mandible - a rare case presentation in pediatric patient
Santanu Mukhopadhyay, Abira Chattopadhyay, Raja Bhattacharya, Ushapati Roy
April-June 2016, 34(2):180-184
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180450  PMID:27080971
Gorham's disease or vanishing bone disease is a rare, progressive musculoskeletal disorder characterized by resorption of bone matrix, and later replaced by fibrous connective tissue. The disease has no specific predilection for age, gender, or race. The most common sites of involvement are the shoulder and pelvic bones. To date, nearly 50 cases of Gorham's disease with maxillofacial involvement have been reported in the literature. The etiology of Gorham's disease is not known, clinical features are variable, and prognosis is generally good unless vital structures are involved. Due to the rarity of the condition, no definite treatment protocol exists for this disorder. Here, we described a pediatric case of Gorham's disease with mandibular involvement.
  5,267 304 2
Assessment of child behavior in dental operatory in relation to sociodemographic factors, general anxiety, body mass index and role of multi media distraction
Gyanendra Mishra, Seema Thakur, Parul Singhal, Shiv Nath Ghosh, Deepak Chauhan, Cheranjeevi Jayam
April-June 2016, 34(2):159-164
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180446  PMID:27080967
Background and Objectives: Children and adolescents comprise a group of individuals representing a large variation in size, competence, maturity, personality, temperament and emotions experience, oral health, family background, culture, etc. Furthermore, a growing child is in a constant state of flux as he grows up and actively interacts with the environment. Many factors contribute to the dental behavior of the child. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sociodemographic factors, general anxiety, body mass index (BMI), and role of multimedia on the child behavior (CB) in the dental operatory. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and one children aged 3-14 years and their parents participated in the study. In the first visit, the questionnaire was filled by the parent and general examination was done. During the second visit, the required dental procedure was rendered, and the behavior was recorded by a single examiner. Results: Among sociodemographic factors, increasing age is directly related to child's positive behavior, whereas other factors such as gender and socioeconomic status (SES) are not significantly related. General anxiety significantly affects the child's behavior. BMI of the child is not related to child's behavior in dental operatory. Multimedia was not found to be significantly affecting the behavior of the child in dental operatory. Interpretations and Conclusion: The principle conclusion of this study is that there is a significant association of age and treatment procedure rendered with the CB in the dental operatory whereas gender, SES, general anxiety, BMI, and multimedia do not show any significant association with the CB in the dental operatory.
  5,088 412 2
Darier's disease - Oral, general and histopathological features in a 7 year old child
Sreedevi Dharman, Muthukrishnan Arvind
April-June 2016, 34(2):177-179
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180449  PMID:27080970
Darier's disease, also known as keratosis follicularis, is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis, manifesting clinically as hyperkeratotic, firm papule that predominates in the seborrheic areas and flexures with accompanying nail abnormalities. Heat, sweating, sunlight, and stress are exacerbating factors of the lesion. The oral lesions are asymptomatic and comprise multiple white papules in the buccal mucosa and hard palate, giving a cobblestone appearance, and it is characterized histologically by loss of desmosomal adhesion and abnormal keratinization resulting in mucocutaneous abnormalities. Pruritus, recurrent infections, and malodor can decrease the quality of life. We report a case of a 7-year-old boy with clinical and histological features of Darier's disease.
  5,052 263 4
Assessment of social, demographic determinants and oral hygiene practices in relation to dental caries among the children attending Anganwadis of Hingna, Nagpur
Shweta Suresh Bhayade, Rakesh Mittal, Shweta Chandak, Ashish Bhondey
April-June 2016, 34(2):124-127
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180415  PMID:27080961
Background: In developing countries, dental caries is the most common disease of the early childhood. Its increased prevalence in younger age group have been predictive of oral health problems in future, affecting oral health and development leading to several morbid conditions of oral and general health. Prevalence and incidence of dental caries is highly influenced by a number of risk factors such as gender, age, socioeconomic status, dietary patterns, and oral hygiene habits. Aim: To assess social, demographic determinants and oral hygiene practices in relation to dental caries among the children attending Anganwadis of Hingna, Nagpur. Materials and Methodology: A cross sectional study in 27 Anganwadis of Hingna, Nagpur was carried out over a period of two months and a total of 324 subjects attending the Anganwadis were enrolled. Social, demographic and oral hygiene practices in relation to dental caries were assessed in the study population. Results: Out of 324 subjects, 206 had dental caries and 38 were found to be malnourished. A significant association was found among age, malnutrition, parent's educational status, oral hygiene practices, total number of siblings, and dental caries. Conclusion: Anganwadis should be addressed routinely on effective oral and general health promoting strategies which must include education of parents, oral and general health issues, risk factors for dental caries, and malnutrition in children below 5 years of age.
  4,785 433 2
The role of cacao extract in reduction of the number of mutans streptococci colonies in the saliva of 12-14 year-old-children
Fajriani , Annisa Wicita Mustamin, Asmawati
April-June 2016, 34(2):120-123
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180414  PMID:27080960
Background: Cacao bean husk ethanol extract (CBHEE) has polyphenol that acts as an antibacterial agent, specially anti-glucosyltransferase. Aim: This study is aimed to see the effectiveness of CBHEE to reduce the number of mutans streptococci colonies in the saliva of children (with young permanent teeth), when CBHE is used as mouth rinse. Materials and Methods: This study used cross-sectional study design with time-series experimental study and used simple random sampling on 30 subjects. The chosen subjects are those who have middle oral hygiene status (OHI-S). Each subject was given the same intervention; in the first step, saliva was collected from the subjects (prior to intervention), in the second step, the subjects were given 15 mL of CBHEE 0.1% mouth rinse to rinse their mouth for about 30 s. After intervention, their saliva was collected twice in 15 min and 30 min after intervention. Furthermore, the number of mutans streptococci colonies were measured in colony-forming units (CFU) and the data was statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t-test. The data was analyzed and proccessed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 22.0 for windows versions. Results: The data statistically showed, significantly, the reduction of Streptococcus mutans colonies before and after 30 min of intervention. Before intervention, there were 59.10 CFU/mL of mutans streptococci, and after 15 min of intervention it showed reduction of mutans streptococci to 25.73 CFU/mL and after 30 min of intervention, the counts of mutans streptococci showed a reduction to 9.40 CFU/mL. From the test results, statistical value of this research was P = 0.000 (P < 0.05), which means that the reduction of the mutans streptococci count was significant. Conclusion: Using CBHEE as mouth rinse for children has been proven highly effective in reducing mutans streptococci colony counts in the mouth.
  4,344 405 -
ND Shashikiran
April-June 2016, 34(2):103-104
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180371  PMID:27080956
  4,356 269 -
Christ siemens touraine syndrome: A rare case report
N Retnakumari, Manuja Varghese, VP Kannan
April-June 2016, 34(2):185-188
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180451  PMID:27080972
Christ-Siemens-Touraine (CST) is a rare hereditary disorder of X-linked recessive trait, characterized by abnormal development of two or more structures or tissues of ectodermal origin. The common clinical findings include hypodontia, hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and onychodysplasia. Although hypodontia is common, anodontia is a rare feature. Most of the patients are suffering from social rejection and consequent psychological trauma because of the facial dysmorphism and absence of multiple teeth. Oral rehabilitation is of prime importance for such patients. This article presents a case in a 5½-year-old boy presenting with altered manifestations affecting almost all the ectodermal structures like skin, hair, nails, teeth, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, and tear glands. He also had complete anodontia and dry mouth. A multidisciplinary treatment was given to the patient with the collaboration of various health professionals. The child gained confidence and was relieved from the psychological impact following the prosthetic rehabilitation.
  4,322 278 1
A comparative evaluation of ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement as a pulpotomy medicament
Dipti Bhagat, Ravi Kadur Sunder, Shashikiran Nandihalli Devendrappa, Amit Vanka, Nidhi Choudaha
April-June 2016, 34(2):172-176
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180448  PMID:27080969
Introduction: Recently, some studies have compared mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) with portland cement (PC), concluding that the principle ingredients of PC are similar to those of MTA. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of PC as a pulpotomy medicament. Materials and Methods: Thirty premolars that scheduled for extraction for therapeutic reasons were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: ProRoot MTA (PMTA) and PC. After isolation and pulp exposure, pulpotomy was carried out and pulps were dressed with PMTA and PC. After 6 months, the teeth were extracted and prepared for histological analysis based on Cox et al. criteria. The data were analyzed by Z-test of proportion with 1% of allowed error. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups with respect to inflammatory response, soft tissue organization, and dentine bridge formation (P > 0.05). Conclusions: PC was associated with similar favorable biological response to pulpotomy treatment as PMTA. The findings of this study support the idea that PC can be considered a cheaper substitute to MTA.
  4,074 456 6
Self reported behavioral and emotional difficulties in relation to dentition status among school going children of Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India
Adepu Srilatha, Dolar Doshi, Madupu Padma Reddy, Suhas Kulkarni, Bandari Srikanth Reddy
April-June 2016, 34(2):128-133
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180419  PMID:27080962
Background: Oral health has strong biological, psychological, and social projections, which influence the quality of life. Thus, developing a common vision and a comprehensive approach to address children's social, emotional, and behavioral health needs is an integral part of the child and adolescent's overall health. Aim: To assess and compare the behavior and emotional difficulties among 15-year-olds and to correlate it with their dentition status based on gender. Study Settings and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire study among 15-year-old schoolgoing children in six private schools in Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India. Materials and Methods: The behavior and emotional difficulties were assessed using self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The dentition status was recorded by the criteria given by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the Basic Oral Health Survey Assessment Form (1997). Statistical Analysis: Independent Student's t-test was used for comparison among the variables. Correlation between scales of SDQ and dentition status was done using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient method. Results: Girls reported more emotional problems and good prosocial behavior and males had more conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and total difficulty problems. Total decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed component were significantly and positively correlated with total difficulty, emotional symptom, and conduct problems scale while missing component was correlated with the hyperactivity scale and filled component with prosocial behavior. Conclusion: DMFT and its components showed an association with all scales of SDQ except for peer problem scale. Thus, the oral health of children was significantly influenced by behavioral and emotional difficulties; so, changes in the mental health status will affect the oral health of children.
  4,141 238 -
Dental management of Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome associated with oral cleft and hypodontia
Shanmugasundaram Karthikeyani, Velliangattur Ramasamy Thirumurthy, Bindhoo A Yuvaraja
April-June 2016, 34(2):192-195
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180453  PMID:27080974
Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome (RHS) is a rare type of autosomal dominant disorder characterized by association of ectodermal dysplasia (ED) with cleft lip/palate. The main features include dry, brittle hair with alopecia in adulthood, dental anomalies (hypodontia, microdontia with delayed eruption, fissured tongue, and retruded maxilla), hypohidrosis, dysplastic nails, and clefting. Palmar-plantar keratoderma is seen frequently. RHS has signs and symptoms that overlap considerably with those of ankyloblepharon-ED-clefting syndrome and ectrodactyly-ED-clefting syndrome. This manuscript discusses a case of RHS, one of the four members in three generations who had ED with variable degree of involvement of hair, teeth, nail, and sweat glands.
  3,683 271 -
Barriers of dental care utilization for children living in military and civilian areas
Amrita Sujlana, Devinder Baweja, Avninder Kaur, Pannu Parampreet Kaur
April-June 2016, 34(2):115-119
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.180410  PMID:27080959
Aim: We planned our study to assess whether easy access to dental care facilities result in improved oral health and increased utilization of dental services by children. Materials and Methods: Four hundred child-parent pairs, 200 each from the military and civilian areas, were randomly selected (children aged 5 years). Prior to the clinical examination of their wards, parents were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their sociodemographic details, family structure, dental care utilization, and attitudinal variables toward oral health. Dental caries prevalence and treatment needs were assessed using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (1997). Statistical Analysis Used: Students' t-test and chi-square test were used to assess the significance of difference between the two groups. Multivariate regression analysis was performed for all covariates associated with the child's dental attendance pattern. Results: The percentage prevalence of children affected by dental caries was observed to be statistically higher in the civilian area. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) score was 2.35 ± 2.92 and 3.26 ± 3.35 in the military and civilian areas, respectively (t stat = 2.78, P = 0.002). The percentage of teeth requiring treatment was observed to be 22.5% and 27.6% in the military and civilian areas, respectively (χ2 = 16.77, P < 0.0001). Covariates significantly associated with increased child's dental attendance were identified as: High level of the mother's education, regularity of dental visits by the parents, the child's increased brushing frequency, and past caries experience. Conclusion: Despite the adequate availability of dental facilities in military areas, untreated dental problems are prevalent. Our finding confirms that dental care utilization is not solely access-related, and other barriers need to be investigated.
  3,563 295 1
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