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Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Official publication of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
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   2015| October-December  | Volume 33 | Issue 4  
    Online since September 18, 2015

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A cross-sectional study to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ) of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district, India with different fluoride levels
Shibu Thomas Sebastian, S Sunitha
October-December 2015, 33(4):307-311
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165682  PMID:26381633
Introduction: Besides dental and skeletal fluorosis, excessive fluoride intake can also affect the central nervous system without first causing the physical deformities associated with skeletal fluorosis. With the existence of widespread endemic fluorosis in India, the possible adverse effect of elevated fluoride in drinking water on the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) level of children is a potentially serious public health problem. Aims and Objectives: This study assessed the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district with different fluoride levels. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 405 school children aged 10-12 years were selected from three villages in Mysore district with normal fluoride (1.20 mg F/l), low fluoride (0.40 mg F/l) and high fluoride (2.20 mg F/l) in their water supplies. A pre designed questionnaire was used to collect the required data for the survey which included socio demographic details, oral hygiene practices, diet history, body mass index and dental fluorosis. Intelligence Quotient was assessed using Raven's colored Progressive Matrices Test. Results: In bivariate analysis, significant relationships were found between water fluoride levels and Intelligence Quotient of school children (P < 0.05). In the high fluoride village, the proportion of children with IQ below 90, i.e. below average IQ was larger compared to normal and low fluoride village. Age, gender, parent education level and family income had no significant association with IQ. Conclusion: School children residing in area with higher than normal water fluoride level demonstrated more impaired development of intelligence when compared to school children residing in areas with normal and low water fluoride levels. Thus, children's intelligence can be affected by high water fluoride levels.
  15 15,952 490
Phentolamine mesylate: It's role as a reversal agent for unwarranted prolonged local analgesia
Harpreet Singh Grover, Anil Gupta, Neha Saksena, Neha Saini
October-December 2015, 33(4):265-268
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165646  PMID:26381625
Administration of local anesthesia is an integral procedure prior to dental treatments to minimize the associated pain. It is learned that its effect stays more than the time required for the dental procedure to be completed. This prolonged soft tissue anesthesia (STA) can be detrimental, inconvenient, and unnecessary. Phentolamine mesylate, a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug essentially serves the purpose of faster recovery from numbness at the site of local anesthesia. This article reviews the development of the drug phentolamine mesylate and its indication as a local anesthetic reversal agent. A literature search for phentolamine mesylate as a STA reversal agent was conducted in PubMed using the terms "dental local anesthesia reversal, phentolamine mesylate" up to March 2014. The search was limited to articles published in English. The search revealed 13 PubMed indexed articles stating the development and application of phentolamine mesylate. Phentolamine mesylate is an important step in the progress of developing patient care as well as an aid to the dental clinician.
  6 11,624 682
Effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (cpp-acp) on caries-like lesions in terms of time and nano-hardness: An in vitro study
Shanthan Mettu, Namineni Srinivas, CH Reddy Sampath, Nallanchakrava Srinivas
October-December 2015, 33(4):269-273
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165657  PMID:26381626
Context: Time bound increase in the nanohardness of the enamel after remineralization with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) in a regular interval of 1 h has not been explored in the literature to a greater extent. Aims: To determine and compare the maximum hardness of the remineralized caries-like lesions, in terms of nanohardness and the rate of achieving maximum hardness at 1-h interval, after treatment with artificial saliva and CPP-ACP, over 12 h. Materials and Methods: Fifty longitudinal sections of extracted sound permanent maxillary central, lateral incisors were immersed in demineralizing solution for 4 days. The samples were then randomly divided into three groups, consisting of 12 sections each for soaking them in three different media-isotonic saline, artificial saliva, and CPP-ACP for 12 h. The nanohardness was measured on the labial surface, at baseline, after erosion, and after remineralization at 1-h interval. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed with paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc analysis. Results: CPP-ACP increased the enamel hardness significantly (P < 0.001), at an increased rate, than artificial saliva. Conclusions: This study has provided an insight into the frequency of use of CPP-ACP, once per day, as the nanohardness of enamel samples increased within 1 h of application and remained within the normal limits after 12 h.
  5 5,344 545
Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study
Swati Ramesh Karkare, Nivedita Pramod Ahire, Smita Uday Khedkar
October-December 2015, 33(4):274-278
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165658  PMID:26381627
Introduction: Enterococcus faecalis are the most resistant and predominant microorganisms recovered from root canals of teeth where previous treatment has failed. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. In dentistry, phytomedicines has been used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative, and also as an endodontic irrigant. In endodontics, because of the cytotoxic reactions of most of the commercial intracanal medicaments and their inability to eliminate bacteria completely from dentinal tubules, the trend is shifting toward use of biologic medication extracted from natural plants. Aim: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of newer irrigating agents which would probably be as effective or more and at the same time less irritating to the tissues than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of saturated and diluted (1:1) hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% NaOCl against E. faecalis using the commonly used agar diffusion method. Results: Saturated hydroalcoholic extract of A. vera showed the highest zone of inhibition against E. faecalis. NaOCl, which is considered as gold standard, also showed higher zones of inhibition.
  5 8,517 878
Comparative evaluation of the remineralizing efficacy of calcium sodium phosphosilicate agent and fluoride based on quantitative and qualitative analysis
Saranya Mony, Arathi Rao, Ramya Shenoy, Baranya Srikrishna Suprabha
October-December 2015, 33(4):291-295
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165667  PMID:26381630
Background: Calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin) is an agent that is claimed to release calcium and phosphate ions intraorally to help the self-repair process of enamel. It is used extensively as a desensitizing agent, but the chemical reactions that occur may promote apatite formation enhancing remineralization. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of NovaMin to remineralize an experimentally induced demineralized lesion. The evaluation was done based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of enamel over the period of 15 and 30 days. Materials and Methods: A sample of 120 noncarious premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were used for the study. Baseline data for hardness, Ca/PO 4 , and surface characteristics before and after demineralization process was obtained. All the teeth were brushed twice daily at 12 h interval with the test agents using a powered toothbrush for 2 min. The samples were tested on the 15 th and 30 th day. Results: Calcium phosphate ratio and hardness in both the groups improved during the study period. Fluoride group showed higher values for Ca/PO 4 and hardness but was not statistically significant with the P > 0.05. Scanning electron microscope pictures showed that the deposition of the material over the decalcified enamel is more smoother and uniform with NovaMin and more irregular with fluoride. Relevance: NovaMin is found to be as effective in improving the Ca/PO 4 ratio and hardness in a demineralized enamel as fluoride. Hence, it can be a new alternate material for remineralization of enamel with less toxic effects compared to fluorides.
  5 6,873 499
Prospective analysis of factors associated with dental behavior management problems, in children aged 7-11 years
Ramya Pai, Praveenkumar Mandroli, Deepa Benni, Pallavi Pujar
October-December 2015, 33(4):312-318
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165684  PMID:26381634
Aim: To determine the prevalence of child behavior management problems (BMP) and to analyze the influence and predictive power of nondental and dental background variables on BMP. Study Design: Prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: The study group included 165 children aged 7-11 years who received comprehensive dental treatment, after obtaining written informed consent. Parents/guardians were interviewed using standardized questionnaire to obtain background information. Each child's treatment was carried out and was recorded with a fixed digital video (DV) recorder. The treatments were classified into three levels of invasiveness: Noninvasive (NI), moderately invasive (MI), and highly invasive (HI). The entire DV record of each treatment was observed, and child's dental behavior was rated independently by two precalibrated examiners using modified Venham's behavior rating scale. Then, the background factors obtained through the questionnaire data were analyzed for its association with child's dental behavior. Results: Statistical tests used were Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the relationship of multiple variables with dental behavior. Comparison of child's behavior during different visits was done by Wilcoxan matched pairs test. The prevalence of BMP in children aged 7-11 years in the study sample was 0%, 4.2%, and 15.76% for NI, MI, and HI procedures, respectively. Three variables were significant predictors of behavior; order of birth that is, first born, history of hospitalization, and unpleasant past dental experience (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Direct conditioning pathway is the major factor in determining child's behavior. Dental experiences, duration of treatment, and complexity of treatment have greater impact on how the child behaves in a dental setup.
  5 4,821 398
Periostitis ossificans (Garrè's osteomyelitis): An unusual case
Deepesh Singh, Priya Subramaniam, Panduranga Deepak Bhayya
October-December 2015, 33(4):344-346
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165718  PMID:26381640
Garrè's sclerosing osteomyelitis is a specific type of chronic osteomyelitis that mainly affects children and young adults and is commonly associated with odontogenic infection. The paper describes an unusual case of Garrè's osteomyelitis in an 11-year-old boy, in whom the condition arose following poor oral hygiene and periodontal problems in relation to permanent mandibular left first molar. Clinically the patient presented with bony hard, nontender swelling and the occlusal radiograph revealed pathognomic feature of "onion skin" appearance.
  4 9,788 447
Fracture resistance of endodontically treated permanent anterior teeth restored with three different esthetic post systems: An in vitro study
Ameet J Kurthukoti, Jaya Paul, Kapil Gandhi, Divya B J Rao
October-December 2015, 33(4):296-301
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165675  PMID:26381631
Background: Esthetic coronal reconstruction of fractured anterior teeth is often performed using intra radicular posts. Most of the commonly used commercially esthetic post systems do not exhibit similar physical properties as dentin resulting in failures. Aim: To evaluate and compare the fracture resistance and mode of failure of simulated traumatized permanent central incisors restored with three different post systems including biologic dentin posts. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 recently extracted human maxillary central incisors with similar dimensions were decoronated 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction and endodontically treated. Ten specimens were randomly selected as the Group I - Control group (core built teeth without intraradicular posts). The remaining 30 teeth were equally divided and restored with zirconia (Group II, n = 10), fiber re-inforced composite (FRC) (Group III, n = 10) and biologic dentin posts (Group IV, n = 10) using resin bonded cement and their cores built-up. These samples were embedded in acrylic resin and then secured in a Universal Testing Machine and subjected to fracture resistance testing. The location of failure in the specimens was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Results: Intergroup comparison revealed that the control group and zirconia post group (522 ± 110 N) demonstrated the least fracture resistance, while dentin post group (721 ± 127 N) the highest. There was no statistically significant difference between fiber post and dentin post groups. Fractures that were repairable were observed in fiber post and dentin post groups, whereas mostly unrestorable, catastrophic fractures were observed in the zirconia post group. Conclusion: Teeth restored with the biologic dentin post system demonstrated the highest fracture resistance and repairable fractures, closely followed by FRC post system. The least fracture resistance and most catastrophic fractures were demonstrated by the zirconia post system.
  4 7,772 672
Effectiveness of lidocaine Denti patch ® system versus lidocaine gel as topical anesthetic agent in children
Lara Anwar Shehab, Bahija Basheer, Kusai Baroudi
October-December 2015, 33(4):285-290
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165664  PMID:26381629
Background: New methods have been introduced to facilitate dental procedures, but the administration of local anesthesia is still necessary to perform pain control during several dental procedures. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the lidocaine Denti-patch ® system versus the lidocaine topical anesthetic gel in children concerning pain reaction during injection. Materials and Methods: One hundred 9-12-year-old cooperative children weighing more than 29 kg in need of bilateral dental treatment requiring maxillary and mandibular injection and not suffering from acute pain as a result of pulpits on the day of treatment were selected. The children were then divided into two groups: Group 1 comprising of 50 children in need of bilateral maxillary treatment and Group 2 compromising of 50 children requiring bilateral mandibular treatment. These groups were further subdivided into subgroups A and B; those receiving Denti-patch ® on one side and lidocaine gel on the contralateral side, respectively. Pain or comfort was evaluated during injection using sound, eye, motor (SEM) scale (objective method) while, using faces pain rating scale (FPS) scale (subjective method) after injection by a trained assistant blinded to the procedure. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparison of the results was performed using Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon signed-ranks test for SEM and FPS score. Result: There was a statistically significant difference between the patch and the gel group for maxilla (P < 0.0001), as well as mandible (P = 0.01) with respect to SEM score given by the children. Similarly, with FPS scale, there was a statistically significant difference between the patch and the gel groups in both maxilla and mandible (P < 0.0001). However, there was no statistical difference between the patch Groups 1A and IIA or the gel Groups 1B and II B. Conclusion: The Denti-patch ® system can significantly reduce the needle injection pain more than the gel.
  4 8,744 730
Evaluation of the accuracy of Demirjian method for estimation of dental age among 6-12 years of children in Navi Mumbai: A radiographic study
Rahul J Hegde, Sumedh Suhas Khare, Tanvi A Saraf, Sonal Trivedi, Sonal Naidu
October-December 2015, 33(4):319-323
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165693  PMID:26381635
Background: Dental formation is superior to eruption as a method of dental age (DA) assessment. Eruption is only a brief occurrence, whereas formation may be related at different chronologic age levels, thereby providing a precise index for determining DA. The study was designed to determine the nature of inter-relationship between chronologic and DA. Materials and Methods: Age estimation depending upon tooth formation was done by Demirjian method and accuracy of Demirjian method was also evaluated. The sample for the study consisted of 197 children of Navi Mumbai. Results: Significant positive correlation was found between chronologic age and DA that is, (r = 0.995), (P < 0.0001) for boys and (r = 0.995), (P < 0.0001) for girls. When age estimation was done by Demirjian method, mean the difference between true age (chronologic age) and assessed (DA) was 2 days for boys and 37 days for girls. Demirjian method showed high accuracy when applied to Navi Mumbai (Maharashtra - India) population. Conclusion: Demirjian method showed high accuracy when applied to Navi Mumbai (Maharashtra - India) population.
  3 4,665 376
Central giant cell granuloma in a 4-year-old female child
Srinath Krishnappa, Sahana Srinath, Pavana Gopinath, Vishwanath S Krishnappa
October-December 2015, 33(4):337-340
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165711  PMID:26381638
Central giant cell granulomas (CGCG) are reddish lesions of gingiva that account for an important number of disorders frequently diagnosed in the regular dental practice. Although the majority of the lesions are nonaggressive, asymptomatic, and slow-growing, about 30% show an aggressive, progressively destructive behavior, and a tendency to recur. We present a case of aggressive CGCG of the maxilla in a 4-year-old female child managed by surgical excision. To minimize the possible cost of esthetic, functional, and psychological problems, mainly in young patients, CGCG should be diagnosed and managed at the earliest.
  1 4,643 333
Treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion using face mask therapy with alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol
Anand Ramchandra Rathi, N Retna Kumari, Kannan Vadakkepuriyal, Madhu Santhkumar
October-December 2015, 33(4):341-343
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165713  PMID:26381639
Class III malocclusion is very common malocclusion and can be due to maxillary retrusion, mandibular prognathism, or combination. Ellis and McNamara found a combination of maxillary retrusion and mandibular protrusion to be the most common skeletal relationship (30%). The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. Reverse pull head gear combined with maxillary expansion can effectively correct skeletal Class III malocclusion due to maxillary deficiency in growing patient. An eight-year-old female patient with chief complaint of prognathic mandible and anterior crossbite was successfully treated in duration of 5 months with facemask and expansion therapy based on Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol.
  1 8,938 713
Congenital peripheral ameloblastic fibroma with intraosseous involvement in a 2-week-old infant: A case report with review of literature
Sabina Langer, Monisha Choudhury, Savita Agarwal, Parvesh Mehra
October-December 2015, 33(4):351-354
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165721  PMID:26381642
Ameloblastic fibroma is a rare, slow-growing benign mixed odontogenic tumor. It constitutes 2% of odontogenic tumors and is reported to occur at an age ranging from 6 months to 42 years. The youngest being a 7-week-old infant. We report a case of peripheral ameloblastic fibroma in a 2-week-old infant. The lesion presented since birth. It involved the maxilla with an extraosseous component involving the gingiva. A more or less conservative surgical approach of enucleation and curettage of the lesion was done under general anesthesia, trying to conserve the adjacent tooth buds. Only a few cases of congenital peripheral ameloblastic fibroma have been reported so far.
  1 3,755 270
Catalase and sodium fluoride mediated rehabilitation of enamel bleached with 37% hydrogen peroxide
Ruchi Thakur, Anand L Shigli, Divya Sharma, Gagan Thakur
October-December 2015, 33(4):324-330
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165702  PMID:26381636
Background: Bleaching agents bring about a range of unwanted changes in the physical structure of enamel which needs to be restored qualitatively and timely. Catalase being an antioxidant ensures the effective removal of free radicals and improvement in fluoride mediated remineralization from the enamel microstructure which if retained may harm the integrity and affect the hardness of enamel. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted incisors were sectioned to 6 slabs which were divided into 5 groups: Group A, control; Group B, treatment with 37% hydrogen peroxide (HP); Group C, treatment with 37% HP and catalase, Group D, treatment with 37% HP and 5% sodium fluoride application, Group E, treatment with 37% HP followed by catalase and 5% sodium fluoride. Scanning electron microscope and microhardness analysis were done for all slabs. One-way ANOVA test was applied among different groups. Results: Vicker's microhardness number (VHN) of Group B and C was significantly lower. No significant difference between VHN of Group B and C. VHN of Group D was significantly higher than Group A, B, and C; but significantly lower than Group E. VHN of Group E was significantly higher than any other experimental group. One-way ANOVA revealed a highly significant P value (P = 0.0001) and so Tukey's post-hoc Test for the group comparisons was employed. Conclusion: Subsequent treatment of bleached enamel with catalase and fluoride varnish separately results in repairing and significantly increasing the microhardness.
  1 4,242 292
Effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness: An in vitro study
Gaurao Vasant Mali, Arun Suresh Dodamani, Gundabaktha Nagappa Karibasappa, Prashanth Vishwakarma Kumar, Vardhaman Mulchand Jain
October-December 2015, 33(4):331-336
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165707  PMID:26381637
Objectives: To assess and compare the effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness over a period of 14 days. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was done on 40 noncarious deciduous teeth. 10 teeth in each group were dipped in 4 pediatric medicinal syrups (1 sugarfree and 3 conventional) for 1 min thrice daily for 14 days and the enamel surface micro hardness was checked at baseline, 7 th day and 14 th day by Vickers hardness testing machine. The pH, titratable acidity and buffering capacity of the syrups were assessed. Results: The pH of syrups were above critical pH for demineralization of the tooth but tiratable acidity and buffering capacity differed. ANOVA test indicated that the reduction in mean micro hardness was maximum in Group D (Conventional Analgesic syrup) and least in Group A (Sugarfree cough syrup) on 7 th and 14 th day. On intergroup comparison there was no difference (P > 0.05) in micro hardness between Group B (Conventional Cough syrup) and Group C (Conventional Antibiotic). However, highly significant (P < 0.01) difference between the either pair of Group B with Group D, and Group C with Group D on 14 th day. The percentage reduction in micro hardness on 14 th day was maximum for Group D (24.4 ± 2.2) and minimum for Group A (14.0 ± 1.3) which was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Sugar free pediatric medicines can be effective in reducing dental erosion and efforts should be made to incorporate sugar substitutes in formulation of pediatric medicines.
  1 7,523 581
Traumatic impact loading on human maxillary incisor: A Dynamic finite element analysis
K Jayasudha, M Hemanth, Raj Baswa, HP Raghuveer, B Vedavathi, Chatura Hegde
October-December 2015, 33(4):302-306
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165680  PMID:26381632
Background: The most vulnerable tooth is the maxillary incisor, which sustains 80% of dental injuries. Dynamic Finite element analysis is used to understand the biomechanics of fracture of maxillary incisor under traumatic impact loading. Aim: The aim was to investigate the stress patterns of an upper incisor in a three-dimensional (3D) model under traumatic impact loading in various directions. Materials and Methods: A 3D finite element model of the upper incisor and surrounding tissues was established. A sinusoidal force of 800N was applied over a period of 4 ms. Results: Software performs a series of calculations and mathematical equations and yields the simulation results. During the horizontal impact (F1), stresses were concentrated in the cervical area of the crown, reaching peak stress of 125 MPa at 2 ms. Conclusion: A horizontal force exerted on the labial surface of the tooth tends to cause cervical crown fractures, oblique crown root fractures, and oblique root fractures.
  1 4,144 317
Oral, physical, and behavioral aspects of patient with chromosome 47, XYY syndrome
Lisa Scheidt, Mariane Emi Sanabe, Michele Baffi Diniz
October-December 2015, 33(4):347-350
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165719  PMID:26381641
Chromosome 47, XYY syndrome is usually diagnosed late. Some of the clinical characteristics of XYY syndrome may be perceptible in dental care. The slow development of cognitive and motor activities and tall stature is common in XYY patients. The aim of this article was to relate the oral, physical, and behavioral aspects of a 6-year-old patient with the chromosome 47, XYY syndrome, diagnosed by means of karyotyping. The patient presented motor difficulty, which led to a fall and traumatism in the anterior region. In the radiography, agenesia of the permanent maxillary lateral incisors, presence of taurodontism in the primary molars, and macrodontia of the maxillary central incisors and permanent molars could be observed. Once the diagnosis was made, it was possible to understand his difficulty at school, and make available appropriate monitoring by a suitable multidisciplinary team to stimulate, control, and minimize the day-to-day difficulties found by patients with this syndrome.
  - 13,198 330
Dental insurance: Boulevard for stakeholders
ND Shashikiran
October-December 2015, 33(4):263-264
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165645  PMID:26381624
  - 3,803 335
Comparative evaluation of microleakage of conventional and modifications of glass ionomer cement in primary teeth: An in vitro study
AS Shruthi, NB Nagaveni, P Poornima, M Selvamani, GS Madhushankari, VV Subba Reddy
October-December 2015, 33(4):279-284
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.165662  PMID:26381628
Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microleakage among conventional, resin modified glass ionomer cements (GIC), and compomer cements in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Forty-five over retained non carious primary molars beyond exfoliation time were collected and randomly divided into three groups (n = 15). Group A: GC Fuji II; Group B: Vitremer; Group C: Compoglass F. A standard Class V cavity was prepared on the buccal surface of each tooth with no mechanical retention and restored accordingly. Then all the samples were subjected to thermocycling for 250 cycles at different temperatures and covered with nail varnish. Later, samples were immersed in 0.5% methylene blue dye for 24 h. Teeth were sectioned buccolingually through the center of the restoration and studied under a stereomicroscope for dye penetration. Data obtained were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Samples restored with vitremer showed comparatively higher microleakage than the samples in other groups. However, overall there were no significant difference between the microleakage scores of the samples in all three groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It can be concluded that none of the three GICs was free from microleakage. Hence, further research is required to compare microleakage of the newer material.
  - 6,899 753
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