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Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Official publication of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
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   2013| April-June  | Volume 31 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 26, 2013

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A comparative study of salivary buffering capacity, flow rate, resting pH, and salivary Immunoglobulin A in children with rampant caries and caries-resistant children
S Kuriakose, C Sundaresan, V Mathai, E Khosla, FMA Gaffoor
April-June 2013, 31(2):69-73
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.115697  PMID:23886715
Purpose : This study was conducted to identify various factors in the development of rampant type of dental caries in South Kerala children, other than high sucrose intake and poor oral hygiene. This was done by comparing the salivary buffering capacity(BC), flow-rate(FR), resting pH and salivary immunoglobulin-A(s-IgA) levels in children who are caries resistant(CR) and who have rampant dental caries. Materials and Methods :Two study groups, a rampant caries group(RC) with more than five active caries lesions in the early stages and a CR with no caries lesions were selected based on a specific criteria. Unstimulated whole mixed saliva was collected directly from the floor of the mouth for a period of 10 min and the FR was calculated. Resting pH of saliva was measured using color coded pH paper. BC was measured by calculating the amount of citric acid of pH2.5, required to lower the initial pH of saliva down to 3. s-IgA levels were also estimated by immunoturbidometric method after forming a precipitate of s-IgA with specific anti-IgA antibodies. Result: The salivary BC, FRs, pH and s-IgA levels were significantly lower in the RC group when compared to the CR group. Conclusion : This study showed that salivary BC, flow-rate, resting pH and levels of s-IgA in saliva are risk factors in the development of RC in children.
  15 7,503 703
Dental anxiety and behavioral problems: A study of prevalence and related factors among a group of Iranian children aged 6-12
M Paryab, M Hosseinbor
April-June 2013, 31(2):82-86
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.115699  PMID:23886717
Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence and also some related demographic and dental factors of dental anxiety and behavioral problems in school-aged children. Subjects and Methods: A total of 150 children of 6-12 years old were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Prior to the dental visit, the mothers were asked to answer a questionnaire of dental and demographic background and a Corah dental anxiety scale (CDAS). At the same time, a faces version of the modified child dental anxiety scale (MCDAS) was completed by the child. Next, the child was guided to the operating room. According to the treatment plan, local anesthesia solution was injected and the child's cooperative behaviors were quantified based on the Frankle index duration the injection stage. Analysis of Variance and Linear regression models were used for the statistical analysis. Results: The mean scores of the child's dental anxiety and cooperative behavior were 20.81 (±6.97) and 3.04 (±0.86), respectively. Forty four children (29.33%) had severe dental anxiety. Child's age and regular dental visit are predictive factors for the child's dental anxiety (P < 0.05). Dental behavioral problems had been identified in 43 children (28.67%). Unpleasant previous dental experience is an important factor affecting the child's cooperative behaviors (P < 0.05). Conclusion: High prevalence of severe dental anxiety may be seen in early years of school. It seems that general factors such as family factors have less impact on behavior of school aged children in a dental visit.
  13 8,498 890
Reaction of rat subcutaneous tissue to mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement: A secondary level biocompatibility test
P Karanth, MK Manjunath, Roshni , ES Kuriakose
April-June 2013, 31(2):74-81
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.115698  PMID:23886716
Objectives: This secondary-level animal study was conducted to assess and compare the subcutaneous tissue reaction to implantation of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and white Portland cement. Study Design: Polyethylene tubes filled with either freshly mixed white MTA (Group I) or white Portland cement (Group II) were implanted subcutaneously into 12 Wistar Albino rats. Each animal also received an empty polyethylene tube as the control (Group III). After 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, the implants, together with surrounding tissues were excised. Two pathologists blinded to the experimental procedure, evaluated sections taken from the biopsy specimens for the severity of the inflammatory response, calcification and the presence and thickness of fibrous capsule surrounding the implant. Statistical analysis was performed using the Cross-tabs procedure, Univariate analysis of the variance two-way and the Pearson product moment correlation to assess inter-rater variability between the two evaluators. Results: At 7 days, there was no significant difference in the severity of inflammation between the control group, white MTA, and white Portland cement groups. In the 14 day, 21 day and 30 day test periods, control group had significantly less inflammation than white MTA and white Portland cement. There was no significant difference in the grading of inflammation between white MTA and white Portland cement. All materials exhibited thick capsule at 7 days and thin capsule by 30 days. Conclusion: Both white MTA and white Portland cement were not completely non-irritating at the end of 30 days as evidenced by the presence of mild inflammation. However, the presence of a thin capsule around the materials, similar to the control group, indicates good tissue tolerance. White MTA and white Portland cement seem to be materials of comparable biocompatibility.
  6 4,131 305
"Effect of nano-filled surface coating agent on fluoride release from conventional glass ionomer cement: An in vitro trial"
S Tiwari, B Nandlal
April-June 2013, 31(2):91-95
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.115703  PMID:23886719
Context: To overcome the drawbacks of glass ionomer cement of sensitivity to initial desiccation and moisture contamination the use of surface coating agent is recommended. The search in this area led to invent of use of nanofillers in surface coating agent, but its effect on fluoride release is not clear. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the fluoride release from conventional glass ionomer cement with and without surface coating agent. Settings and Design: This in vitro study comprised of total 80 samples (40 samples of each with and without surface coating). Materials and Methods: Specimens were prepared, G coat plus was applied and light cured. Fluoride release of the sample was measured every 24 h for 7 days and weekly from 7th to 21 st day using Sension4 pH/ISE/MV Meter. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive Statistics, Repeated Measure ANOVA, Paired Sample t-test, Independent Sample t-test, Scheffe post hoc test. Results: Mean values clearly reveal a significant decrease in the fluoride release from day 1 to day 21 for both groups. Non-coated group released significantly more fluoride than surface coated group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It can be concluded that nanofilled surface coating agent will reduce the amount of fluoride released into oral environment as compared to non-coated group and at the same time releasing fluoride into surrounding cavity walls to create zones of inhibition into the cavity floor to help internal remineralization.
  6 4,350 550
Evaluation of different health education interventions among preschoolers: A randomized controlled pilot trial
BJ John, S Asokan, S Shankar
April-June 2013, 31(2):96-99
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.115705  PMID:23886720
Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the impact of three different health education methods among preschoolers. Study Design: The study group included 100 preschoolers of the same socio-economic status randomly selected and divided into four groups. Debris index (DI-S) was recorded for all children followed by the dental health education. Group A received dental health education from the Dentist; Group B from the class teacher trained by the Dentist and Group C from the dental residents dressed mimicking cartoon characters. Group D acted as the control group. Post-intervention evaluation program was carried out after 3 months. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test, paired t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) appropriately using the SPSS Version 17.1. Results: Comparison of pre- and post-intervention data showed that there was a statistically significant improvement in the (DI-S) scores in all groups except the control group. Group C showed a significant improvement compared to the other Groups A, B, and D (P < 0.04). Conclusion: Drama as a method of health education can have a bigger impact on the oral health attitude and practices of the preschoolers. These modes can serve to reinforce as well as improve the oral health practices among pre-school children.
  6 6,042 582
Prevalence and determinant factors of malocclusion in population with special needs in South India
R Muppa, P Bhupathiraju, MK Duddu, A Dandempally, DL Karre
April-June 2013, 31(2):87-90
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.115701  PMID:23886718
Objectives: Malocclusion plays an important role in the overall oral health of an individual because it is associated with periodontal disease, temporomandibular disorders and may be complicated by an individual's disparity. Careful attention to malocclusion in children with special needs leads to a considerable improvement in the quality-of-life. The objective of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of malocclusion and its association with determinant factors in individuals with special needs in South India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out that included 844 individuals with special needs and their mothers at eleven institutions in South India. Data were collected based on the questionnaire given to the mothers and dental examination carried out on the children. The nutritive and non-nutritive oral habits were obtained from the reports of the mothers. Clinical examination recorded the following: Class I, Class II, Class III, anterior crowding, anterior spacing, deep bite, open bite, and anterior cross bite. Statistical analyses of data were performed using Chi-square test. Results: Results at the end of the study revealed anterior crowding in 27.37% of the total sample size, deep bite in 20.5%, Class I in 14.34%, anterior spacing in 12.9%, Class II in 9.95%, Class III in 5.33%, anterior cross bite in 4.98% and open bite in 4.62%. Conclusion: The prevalence of malocclusion in individuals with special needs is associated with the type of disability and it is more in males than females. Mentally disabled individuals had higher frequencies of all types the malocclusion. Prevalence of anterior crowding was higher compared to other types of malocclusion followed by deep bite.
  5 5,847 546
Estimation and comparison of dental, skeletal and chronologic age in Bangalore south school going children
PH Shilpa, RS Sunil, K Sapna, NC Kumar
April-June 2013, 31(2):63-68
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.115696  PMID:23886714
Objective : Precise evaluation of the developmental stages of a child is an integral part of both diagnosis and treatment planning of pediatric patients and also essential in forensic medicine and dentistry. As human growth shows considerable variation in chronological age, physiological maturity is preferred over chronological age in the estimation of person's exact age. Materials and Methods : Two hundred and fifty children consisting of 124 girls and 126 boys were selected randomly from the age group of 6-15 years. They were divided into 10 groups based on their age. The chronological age was determined by their date of birth as per the school records. An orthopantomogram and left hand-wrist radiographs was taken for each child to assess the dental age through Demirjian's method and skeletal age through the atlas of Greulich and Pyle's method respectively. Result : The dental age showed a significant correlation (P < 0.05) with chronological age in group 1 and 5 in males and group 3 and 7 females, whereas skeletal age showed a significant correlation with chronological age in group 3, 5, 9, and 10 in males and 1, 2, 5, 9, and 10 years in females. Conclusion : Demirjian's method of dental age estimation and Greulich and Pyle's method of skeletal age estimation showed accuracy only in certain age groups in the school children of Bangalore.
  5 6,329 559
Crouzons syndrome: A case report with review of literature
R Tanwar, AR Iyengar, KS Nagesh, BV Subhash
April-June 2013, 31(2):118-120
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.115716  PMID:23886724
Louis Edouard Octave Crouzon, a French neurologist, in 1912, described the hereditary syndrome of craniofacial synostosis in a mother and son. He described the triad as skull deformities, facial anamolies and exopthalmos now known as Crouzon syndrome (CS). CS accounts for about 4.8% of all cases of craniosynostosis. We report a case of CS in 4 year old girl with characteristic features of cranial deformity, maxillary hypoplasia, cleft palate and exopthalmos.
  4 5,222 413
Unusual extensive physiologic melanin pigmentation of the oral cavity: A clinical presentation
K Mallikarjuna, S Gupta, S Shukla, S Chaurasia
April-June 2013, 31(2):121-125
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.115718  PMID:23886725
Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the oral cavity. Oral pigmentations may be physiological or pathological in nature. It may represent as a localized anomaly of limited significance or the presentation of potentially life threatening multisystem disease. Oral pigmentation has a multifactorial etiology. Most of the oral pigmentations are physiologic. Evaluation of a patient with pigmented lesions should include a full medical and dental history, extraoral and intraoral examinations. In this article, we report a case of extensive physiologic pigmentation of the oral cavity in a 12 year old female patient, posing a diagnostic challenge.
  4 22,985 464
Survey of instructions to authors in Indian and British Dental Journals with respect to ethical guidelines
VP Mathur, JK Dhillon, G Kalra, A Sharma, R Mathur
April-June 2013, 31(2):107-112
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.115711  PMID:23886722
Background: Publication can become a symbol of presenting how meticulously a person has followed ethical principles in research. It is the duty of the investigators or authors to carefully read the instructions to authors and generate data with honesty and genuineness. In fulfillment of the basic requisite to publish, clearly defined instructions to authors should be provided by the journal. Aims: To assess the pattern of instructions regarding the ethical requirements given to authors in Indian Dental Journals and tried to compare the same with British Dental Journals. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey of 'instructions for authors,' for analysis of guidelines on ethical processes, was done. Materials and Methods: Instructions to authors of Indian and British Dental Journals indexed in PubMed were reviewed for guidelines with regard to seven key ethical issues. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics were used and results were expressed in percentages as well as numbers. Results: Of the 10 Indian Dental Journals, 7 (70%) cited ethical guidelines such as International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, Committee on Publication Ethics, Indian Council of Medical Research guidelines whereas out of 27 British Dental Journals, 16 (59.25%) cited these. Protection of human subjects such as approval from an institutional/independent ethics committee, obtaining informed consent and maintenance of confidentiality of patient records was covered with 8 (80%) Indian and 19 (70.3%) British Dental Journals. Four (40%) Indian and 13 (48.1%) instructed about animals welfare. Nine (90%) of the Indian and 25 (92.5%) British Dental Journals required declaration of conflicts of interest by authors. Publication issues and authorship/contributorship criteria were specified by all 10 Indian and 25 (92.5%) and 24 (88.8%) British journals respectively. 6 (60%) of Indian and 11 (40.75%) of British Journals explained about data management, in case of clinical trials. Conclusions: A significant proportion of Indexed Indian and British Dental Journals did not provide adequate instructions to authors regarding ethical issues.
  2 3,671 323
Maintaining vitality of immediately reimplanted avulsed tooth: Two-year follow-up case report
AN Munavalli, RJ Sachhi, SS Kambale, SD Bandekar
April-June 2013, 31(2):113-117
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.115714  PMID:23886723
Management of tooth avulsion in the permanent dentition often presents a challenge. Such injuries should be recognized and treated expeditiously because several studies support a more likely favorable prognosis with timely and appropriate initial management. This article describes the immediate management of an avulsed maxillary permanent incisor with afollow-up of 1 year.
  - 6,398 454
Modified serial extraction in a case with missing mandibular second premolars and a brief review of related treatment modalities
P Chalakkal, Ida de Noronha de Ataide, F Akkara, G Malhotra
April-June 2013, 31(2):126-131
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.115719  PMID:23886726
This article discusses a case of an 8-year-old female child who presented with severe lower anterior crowding and congenitally missing lower second premolars. A conventional serial extraction procedure could not be performed due to the congenital absence of teeth. Instead, planned extraction of a few primary teeth was done to relieve the lower anterior crowding, the results of which were near satisfactory.
  - 8,511 733
Professionalism in changing times
ND Shashikiran
April-June 2013, 31(2):61-62
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.115695  PMID:23886713
  - 2,399 195
Evaluation of undergraduate clinical learning experiences in the subject of pediatric dentistry using critical incident technique
S Vyawahare, NR Banda, S Choubey, P Parvekar, A Barodiya, S Dutta
April-June 2013, 31(2):100-106
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.115710  PMID:23886721
Introduction: In pediatric dentistry, the experiences of dental students may help dental educators better prepare graduates to treat the children. Research suggests that student's perceptions should be considered in any discussion of their education, but there has been no systematic examination of India's undergraduate dental students learning experiences. Aim: This qualitative investigation aimed to gather and analyze information about experiences in pediatric dentistry from the students' viewpoint using critical incident technique (CIT). Study Design: The sample group for this investigation came from all 240 3 rd and 4 th year dental students from all the four dental colleges in Indore. Using CIT, participants were asked to describe at least one positive and one negative experience in detail. Results: They described 308 positive and 359 negative experiences related to the pediatric dentistry clinic. Analysis of the data resulted in the identification of four key factors related to their experiences: 1) The instructor; 2) the patient; 3) the learning process; and 4) the learning environment. Conclusion: The CIT is a useful data collection and analysis technique that provides rich, useful data and has many potential uses in dental education.
  - 3,554 264
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