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Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Official publication of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
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   2007| October-December  | Volume 25 | Issue 4  
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Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mutans
MM Fani, J Kohanteb, M Dayaghi
October-December 2007, 25(4):164-168
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.37011  PMID:18007101
Garlic ( Allium sativum ) extract has been known to have inhibitory activity on various pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. The objective of present investigation was to study in vitro inhibitory activity of garlic extract on multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from human carious teeth. Filter sterilized aqueous extract of garlic was prepared and used in the present study. For isolation of S. mutans , extracted human carious teeth were cultured in Todd-Hewit broth and Mitis-Salivarius-Bacitracin agar. S. mutans was characterized by colony morphology, biochemical tests and other conventional bacteriological procedures. Disk sensitivity tests and broth dilution methods were used to determine antibiotic sensitivity profile and inhibitory activity of garlic extract on S. mutans isolated from carious teeth. Of 105 carious teeth tested, 92 (87.6%) isolates of S. mutans were recovered, among which 28 (30.4%) were MDR since they were resistant to four or more antibiotics. The highest rate of resistance was observed for tetracycline (30.4%) and least resistance (0%) to teichoplanin and vancomycin while 22.8% and 23.9% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and amoxicillin, respectively. Chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for MDR and non-MDR S. mutans varied from 2 to 16 g ml−1 and from 0.25 to 1 g ml−1 , respectively ( P < 0.05). All isolates, MDR and non-MDR of S. mutans were sensitive to garlic extract with the MIC ranging from 4 to 32 mg ml−1 . Considering in vitro data obtained in the present study, mouthwashes or toothpaste containing optimum concentration of garlic extract could be used for prevention of dental caries.
  37,498 3,061 45
A comparison between audio and audiovisual distraction techniques in managing anxious pediatric dental patients
AR Prabhakar, N Marwah, OS Raju
October-December 2007, 25(4):177-182
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.37014  PMID:18007104
Pain is not the sole reason for fear of dentistry. Anxiety or the fear of unknown during dental treatment is a major factor and it has been the major concern for dentists for a long time. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the two distraction techniques, viz, audio distraction and audiovisual distraction, in management of anxious pediatric dental patients. Sixty children aged between 4-8 years were divided into three groups. Each child had four dental visits - screening visit, prophylaxis visit, cavity preparation and restoration visit, and extraction visit. Child's anxiety level in each visit was assessed using a combination of four measures: Venham's picture test, Venham's rating of clinical anxiety, pulse rate, and oxygen saturation. The values obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. It was concluded that audiovisual distraction technique was more effective in managing anxious pediatric dental patient as compared to audio distraction technique.
  26,603 2,568 46
Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study
J Jeevarathan, A Deepti, MS Muthu, V Rathna Prabhu, GS Chamundeeswari
October-December 2007, 25(4):157-163
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.37010  PMID:18007100
Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans. Materials and Methods: Thirty caries-free subjects were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire and were randomly assigned to the control group consisting of ten subjects and the study group consisting of twenty subjects. Plaque samples were collected on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and after incubation, the presence of Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the manufacturer's chart. The study group was subjected to a Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application following which the samples were collected again after 24 hours. Results: The average Streptococcus mutan s counts in the primary dentition of caries-free children before and after the application of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish were 10 4 -10 5 colony forming units (CFU)/ml and < 10 4 CFU/ml respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the study group had a statistically significant reduction in the plaque Streptococcus mutans counts than the control group.
  18,514 2,010 15
Dentigerous cysts of anterior maxilla in a young child: A case report
RR Kalaskar, A Tiku, SG Damle
October-December 2007, 25(4):187-190
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.37016  PMID:18007106
Dentigerous cysts are the most common bony lesions of the jaws in children. It is one of the most prevalent types of odontogenic cysts associated with an erupted or developing tooth, particularly the mandibular third molars; the other teeth that are commonly affected are, in order of frequency, the maxillary canines, the maxillary third molars and, rarely, the central incisor. Radiographically, the cyst appears as ovoid well-demarcated unilocular radiolucency with a sclerotic border. The present case report describes the surgical enucleation of a dentigerous cyst involving the permanent maxillary right central incisor; the surgery was followed by oral rehabilitation. Careful evaluation of the history and the clinical and radiographical findings help clinicians to correctly diagnose the condition, identify the etiological factors, and administer the appropriate treatment.
  18,369 1,544 20
Management of dentoalveolar injuries in children: A case report
UM Das, D Viswanath, V Subramanian, M Agarwal
October-December 2007, 25(4):183-186
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.37015  PMID:18007105
Children aged 6-15 years old experience more injuries to their teeth and the injuries sustained are more serious as evidenced by a higher percentage of luxations, avulsions, fractures and dislocations. The mandible is the most frequently fractured facial bone and mandibular alveolar injuries have been reported to range between 8.1-50.6%. Those with mandibular or midface fractures have a higher incidence of associated chest, extremity, abdomen and cervical spine injuries. The growing patient with facial injuries presents the clinician with a series of thought-provoking circumstances. Dentoalveolar and mandibular injuries are especially important to understand because of the potential complications related to tooth eruption, alveolar development, occlusion and facial growth. However, the principles involved in the treatment for children need to be modified by certain anatomical, physiological and psychological factors specifically related to childhood. This case report documents the trauma, management and follow-up care of an 11-year-old boy who sustained undisplaced infraorbital, nasal fractures and mandibular dentoalveolar fracture along with other associated injuries of the extremities.
  17,314 1,341 4
An unusual injury from a toothbrush: A case report
J Ebenezer, DD Adhikari, GC Mathew, RK Chacko
October-December 2007, 25(4):200-202
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.37019  PMID:18007109
The use of toothbrushes has significantly improved oral hygiene. However, if brushing of the teeth is not done judiciously, it could result in severe trauma to the soft tissues of the oral cavity. This is particularly true in the young age group, since children tend to be very playful while brushing their teeth. This article describes the case report of a child who sustained a penetrating injury while brushing his teeth. A detailed plan for the management of such injuries is also presented.
  16,955 655 9
Burkitt's lymphoma in an Indian girl: A case report
K Patil, VG Mahima, BS Jayanth, L Ambika
October-December 2007, 25(4):194-199
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.37018  PMID:18007108
Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a rare monoclonal proliferation of B-lymphocytes and is classified as a poorly differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma. This tumor was first noted in Africans. The cause of this tumor is debatable, but strong evidence implicates Epstein-Barr virus in its development. This tumor predominantly affects children and is probably the fastest growing tumor in humans, with exuberant proliferation. It is a very rare malignancy accounting for only 0.76% of solid malignant tumors among Indian children. A case of BL of the mandible in a 9-year-old girl of Indian origin is reported.
  15,820 724 3
Retention and penetration of a conventional resin-based sealant and a photochromatic flowable composite resin placed on occlusal pits and fissures
FG Aguilar, B Drubi-Filho, LA Casemiro, M.G.C Watanabe, F.C.P Pires-de-Souza
October-December 2007, 25(4):169-173
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.37012  PMID:18007102
This study compares the retention and penetration of a conventional resin-based sealant (Fluroshield) and a photochromatic flowable composite resin (Tetric Flow Chroma) placed on occlusal pits and fissures and submitted to thermal or chemical cycling regimens. Penetration assessment - ten premolars were sealed with each material, isolated (except for the sealed surface) and immersed in 0.2% Rhodamine B. The teeth were serially sectioned in a mesiodistal direction. The images of the sections were digitized and analyzed (ImageLab). The distance between the most superficial and the deepest points on the occlusal central groove was calculated to determine the groove's total depth. The length of the central groove filled with the sealant was divided by its total depth to obtain the percentage of sealing of the occlusal groove. Retention assessment - 30 premolars were sealed, their occlusal surfaces were photographed and the area occupied by the sealing materials was demarcated (ImageLab). The teeth were submitted to different treatments: thermocycled, stored in artificial saliva and immersed in acetic acid and saliva (10 cycles/day protocol for 30 days). New photographs were taken to assess the final area occupied by the materials. The difference between the final and initial area was calculated to obtain the material loss. The data was analyzed (two-way anova and Tukey's test P < 0.05). Both materials presented similar penetration of the occlusal central groove. After thermal and chemical cycling, the materials did not differ with respect to retention, except for immersion in acetic acid. In this case, Tetric Flow Chroma presented greater retention than Fluoroshield.
  15,421 1,049 14
Incidence of cleft lip and palate in Tehran
A Jamilian, F Nayeri, A Babayan
October-December 2007, 25(4):174-176
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.37013  PMID:18007103
The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology and some of the possible risk factors causing oral cleft in Tehran. The study was a 7-year retrospective study from March 1998 to March 2005. Twenty-five live births with cleft lip and/or palate (CL P) were born between 20 March 1998 and 20 March 2005 from the total of 11,651 live births in a maternity hospital in Tehran. After recognizing the child as a cleft patient, previous and following children born were recognized as a noncleft sample. Cleft and noncleft samples were compared for variables such as gender, mother's age, parity, consanguineous marriage and infant's weight, and then analyzed with Chi-square. The overall incidence was 2.14 per 1000 live births. CL+ P is more prevalent, which was 52% and the least incidence was for "only cleft lip'' patients, which was 12%. This study reveals that the incidence of oral clefts in Tehran is higher than many other countries. Consanguineous marriage and low birth weight in cleft group were significant statistically from those of noncleft group.
  12,139 765 21
Primary identification of an abused child in dental office: A case report
JF Santos, AL Cavalcanti, KS Nunes, EC Silva
October-December 2007, 25(4):191-193
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.37017  PMID:18007107
Although the injuries of child abuse are many and varied, several types of injuries are common to abuse. Many of these injuries are within the scope of dentistry or easily observed by the dental professional in the course of routine dental treatment. The authors present a case of child abuse with multiple bruises. The child had been spanked in the previous night and the morning of the attendance by his mother. This case emphasized that all practitioners should be vigilant when patients present with abnormal injuries which may be the result of abuse and further investigation should be instigated.
  9,583 749 2
A silver lining
SG Damle
October-December 2007, 25(4):156-156
DOI:10.4103/0970-4388.37009  PMID:18007099
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  2005 - Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 
Online since 1st May '05