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Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Official publication of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 39  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 61-66

Metallic insignia in primary teeth: A biomarker for Autism Spectrum Disorders

1 Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Baba Jaswant Singh Dental College and Hospital and Research Institution, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2 Associate Professor, Prosthodontics, King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kanwalpreet Kaur
92/2, Sant Nagar, Near College Road, Civil Lines, Ludhiana, Punjab
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jisppd.jisppd_485_20

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Background: Lead accumulations have been found in teeth and related to behavior deficits in children, but there is a dearth of studies in exploring the role of zinc and manganese dysregulations in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using the primary tooth as biomarker. Aims: The objectives of the study were to evaluate and compare the concentrations of zinc and manganese in the primary teeth serving as biomarker, in typically developing children and children with ASD. Settings and Design: Twelve primary incisors indicated for extraction were collected from children between the age group 6 and 9 years, for the study. Six primary incisors were obtained from children who had been diagnosed with ASD (study group). The other six teeth were obtained from typically developing children, in the similar age group. Methods: The primary incisors obtained were analyzed for metal concentrations using the technique Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry. Statistical Analysis: This study was statistically analyzed by student's t-test. Results: It was observed that there are significant differences in metal concentrations found between tooth samples of ASD children and typically developing children. Zinc concentrations were double and manganese concentrations were three times, in teeth of ASD children group as compared to the children in the control group. Conclusions: Results of the current study indicate that there are considerable differences in concentrations of zinc and manganese between the two groups and support the contention that there might be an association between metal exposures of a pregnant mother and child during early years of childhood and incidence of ASD.


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